APRIL 2000

This is the Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon's February 2000 letter. Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended; general comments or replies to commentary are also placed in braces.

Thanks to Master John ap Wynne, Lady Moraig Drummond, Lord Gabriel Ximenez de Malaga, Mistress Elena de Vexin, Lord Dominic Durrant of Marlborough, Lady Adelais de Saviniaco, Mistress Doré van der Zee, Lady Ælfreda aet Æthelwealda, Lord Mikhail of Lubelska, and Master Talan Gwynek for their comments this month.

My tenure is Rouge Scarpe will be ending soon. Lady Aryanhwy merch Catmael will be taking over as Rouge Scarpe and she will begin handling letters in July. Thus, starting in May, all comments should be directed to her--the address will appear in Lord Escutcheon's May letter.

For the last couple of months, I've been sending all the comments that come in during a month and giving other commenters two weeks to respond to them. The response has been sporadic but helpful.

Under the current system, I have only a few days to prepare the LoAR between the 15th, when secondary comments are due, and the 20th, when I need to send the completed LoAR to Paul. This has not been working well, and if we want to continue a two-phase period of commentary we will need to move the deadline for primary commentary back to the middle of the month. If we adopted this system, comments on Escutcheon's June 15 letter would be due on July 15, and secondary commentary would be due August 1.

I would like some feedback from commenters and others. Are you willing to move the deadline back a bit? Will you put out secondary comments? Is this all a waste of time? This system depends on the people who put out commenting letters, and no one involved wants to change the responsibilities of commenters without feedback from you. Please contact me with your opinions on this matter.

1) Agnès de Gailliard--New Name and Device

Azure, a cross fleury argent within a bordure mullety vert.

Submitted as Agnès du Gailliard. Agnes is found as an English name in Scott, "Feminine Given Names." (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/ reaneyAG.html). It also appears in Dauzat, Noms de Famille, 3. Gailliard is found in Dauzat, Noms de Lieux, 309. The client cares most about sound but also wants an authentic 12th-14th century French name.

The client used du (which is a contraction of de le, "of the,") because she intended her name to mean "from the Chateau-Galliard," a reference to the famous Chateau Galliard in Normandy. The reference to the place Galliard in Dauzat does not make a reference to that castle, and so we have substituted de.

{A bordure with a semy of charges is normally drawn with eight examples of the charge in the semy, arranged as the client has done here.}

{2) Alexander de Seton of Altavia--New Badge

Gules a dragon in annulo Or breathing flames proper.

The client's name was registered in 9/96. This badge was submitted to be used by the populace of the Midlands region--it has been the badge of Midlands fighters at Pennsic for the last couple of years. Since the Midlands are not a branch with a registered name, any badge they use would have to be registered either by the Kingdom or by an individual.

Unfortunately, this badge conflicts with both the name and device of the Shire of Hinterland: Gules, a dragon dormant in annulo between three laurel wreaths Or and Gules, a dragon dormant in annulo and a bordure rayonny Or.

3) Bebhinn Dubh--Badge Resubmission

Or, a turtle tergiant azure.

The client's name was registered in 2/00. {Her previous badge, Argent, a turtle tergiant azure, was returned by Rouge Scarpe in 8/99 for conflict with Nicolete de Brabant, Argent, a turtle tergiant azure within a bordure sable. The client has cleared that conflict.}

4) Cainder ingen hui Chatharnaig--New Name and Device.

Per chevron argent and sable, two hazel springs sable and a snowy owl guardant proper.

{This submission was pended on the 3/00 LoAR.} Submitted as Cainner inghean Ui Chatharnaig. The client documents Cainnear from Gregan, Dictionary of Irish Names, 176-177; Chatharnaig from MacLysaght, 171 and Ó Corráin & Maguire (no page numbers), and the grammar from Elliott, "Choosing an Irish Name" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/na mes/irishnam.html). She wants to have her name to be correct for 11th-century Irish.

O Corrain & Maguire, s.n. Cainnear, say that Cainnear is the modern form of the early name Cainder, the name of a daughter of Medb and of several early saints. Chatharnaig.is the genitive of Catharnach, which can be dated back to the 11th century. Master Talan's comments propose ingen hui as the most appropriate form of the designator for the 11th century.

{Some commenters thought that the hazel sprigs were unrecognizable. Although they are pretty sketchy--literally--they are still identifiable.}

5) Cainnech rúad mac Guairi--New Name and Device

Azure, a lymphad argent and on a chief Or an otter passant gules.

The client is looking for an authentic Scottish Gaelic name from the 9th or 10th century. The client documents Cainnech from Jackson, The Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer, 20, 56, where it is dated to the 13th century. Ó Corrain & Maguire, 43, call it a common name. With an accent, rúad appears in Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish, 40. Without the accent, it appears in O'Grady, Silva Gadelica, 485. The source appears to be a printed edition of a Gaelic manuscript with Latin glosses, so it probably dates to 1600 or before. Based on my limited knowledge of Gaelic, I would guess that the source dates fairly early, perhaps to around 1000. The client documents mac Guairi as a constructed variant of mc Guaire, which is found in Bannerman, Studies in the History of Dalriada, 65 as one of the names in the Genelaig Albanensium, an undated Scottish genealogy. He proposes Guairi as a reasonable variant because the pronunciations of i and e are almost identical. We also note that Jones, "Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland," (http://www.panix.com/~mittle/name s/tangwystyl/irish100/) shows a similar variation in the genitive forms of Lóegaire, which has the two genitive forms Lóegairi and Láegaire.

6) Catharina de Bruyn--New Name and Device

Argent chapé, a tulip purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

Submitted as Catarina de Bruyn. The client is looking for an authentic German/Flemish/Venetian name from the mid-1500s. According to Racinet, The Historical Encyclopedia of Costume, Catarina Cornaro was the subject of a painting by Titian. Ibid., 166, also mentions "the Fleming, Abraham de Bruyn," in a discussion of the late 16th century. The De Bruyn Family Genealogy also references a Carolus de Bruyn who was born in 1520 in Steenwercke in Flanders (the German source refers to Frans-Vlaanderen).

We don't have any evidence that Flanders and Venice had enough contact that a hybrid Venetian-Flemish name is possible. However, we did find the Dutch Catharina, dated to 1639 from a New Amsterdam marriage record on the Web (http://www.rootsweb.com/~ote/ rdcmarr.htm). {Obviously this is a bit later than our period, but it's within the acceptable limits for the College of Arms.}

The device does not conflict with Dai of the Tulips, Argent, a tulip gules slipped and leaved vert.. Since two flowers slipped and leaved receive a CD for change of type of the flower alone (LoAR 12/91, p. 20), a change to the tincture of the flower should also count as a CD. If the CoA feels that the leaves are the dominant element of the charge (since they do take up more than 50% of the charge), then it should be blazoned as "a branch vert with a tulip purpure," in which case it would receive complete difference of type from a flower (see the cover letter for the 6/93 LoAR, p. 7). In either case, there should not be a conflict between these two designs.

7) Julio Galván--Change of Registered Name

{This item was pended on the 2/00 LoAR.} The client's current name, Giacomo di Firenze, was registed in 3/94. Julio is dated to 1567 in Coleman, "Database of Baptismal Records from the Parish of San Cecilio, Grenada." Galván is dated to 1535 in Bermudez Plata, Catálogo de Pasajero a Indias, item 1535:349.

I received a letter from Jibra'il al-Nasrani, a herald now living in Calontir, which describes a problem with the source for the given name: I've quoted the letter substantially below.

"I am the owner of that database…of baptismal records collated by David Coleman, Ph.D. (History)…. He compiled whole years ranging from 1520 to 1600 from several parishes in Grenada: Santa Ana, San Cecilio, San Jose, San Nicolas, and San Ildefonso. There are about 2000 records total in this database. Each record contains the date, child's name, parents' names, and godparents' names, for a total of roughly 10,000 names… I am licensed to use this database, but I am not permitted to distribute it in its current form. So…the database is only good to those who know I have this resource and can ask me for help. The client's herald asked me if I could find Julio for him, after having told me that he could not find the name in any source. Below is a listing of what I found and the conclusions I draw from the facts….

1) I found one record out of 2500 with the name Julio in it. It was the name of a child's father. The name was Julio Cesar.

2) I did not find any other record with that surname in this database, and could not recall seeing it elsewhere in any book on Spanish naming practices.

3) There are quite a few foreign names in this database.

Given these facts…I do not believe that this database is a good source to prove the existence of the name Julio in period Spain. I feel that used alone, in this case, it has no probative value. It is my belief that this name is foreign, and possibly Italian.

Therefore, I recommend that unless some member of the College of Heralds can come up with another source showing that the name Julio existed in period Spain, that this name be returned for insufficient documentation."

Despite this opinion, it seems to me that the name meets the CoA's criteria for a registerable name. Although the opinion of the herald who compiled the data is important, the fact remains that we have a pre-1600 dated example of the name Julio used in Spain. It's unusual, and probably significant that it is combined with the surname Cesar, but this doesn't prove that Julio could not have been used by another Spanish person with another surname.

{By the way, in case anyone pays attention to old LoARs, I originally said that Julio Cesar was a given name. This was the result of a miscommunication between Gabriel and I. in fact, Julio Cesar is the full name of the person from the baptismal record.}

8) Matthäus Langermann--New Name {and Device

Quarterly, barry argent and gules, and Or, in bend sinister a double-headed eagle displayed and a stag rampant sable.}

Submitted as Matthaus Langermann. Matthäus, with an umlaut over the ä, is dated to 1382 in Brechenmacher, s.n. Matthäus. Langermann is also a header in Brechenmacher, although the article only includes a dated reference to the form Langmann (1298). Lang and Langer are in the English Bahlow, 326, which includes a reference to Langer but no date. Even though there's no dated reference, the references suggest that Langermann is a reasonable period form. If not, the form Langmann can be dated to period. The client will not accept major changes.

{We must return the device for appearance of marshalling. This design shows that the client is heir to three coats of arms--Argent, two bars gules; Or, a double-headed eagle sable; and Or, a stag rampant sable. Since no SCA member can register a coat of arms that implies a right to many different coats, we are returning this device.}

{9) Oweyn Hudson--New Name and Device

Per bend sinister argent and sable, a raven in dexter chief sable within a bordure dovetailed counterchanged.par Oweyn is dated to 1273 in Withycombe, s.n. Owen. Hudson is a header in Reaney & Wilson and is also the client's mundane surname.

The client says that he's interested in a late 15th to early 16th century name. Most of the examples of Owen from that period appear with the modern spelling Owen. Thus, we're pending this name while we contact the client to see if he wants to change it.

The bordure dovetailed is rather confusing, but it is still identifiable and so we will send the device to Laurel once the name issue is cleared up.}

10) Simon Justus for Capella Sancti Thomi et Sanctae Mariae Magdalenae--Household Name Resubmission

ang1033The client's name was registered in 12/98. Submitted as Capella di Sancti Thomi Et Sancta Maria Magdalene, I have made slight alterations to the Latin grammar. {His previous name submission, Church of St. Thomas and St. Mary Magdalene, was returned for presumption by Rouge Scarpe in 10/99.

The client's understanding of the reason for return is not completely accurate. The problem is not, as he says, that there is only one "true church." As he correctly points out, there were many period organizations that identified themselves as churches. However, as far as I have been able to tell, a "church" always had some kind of official approbation, and all the organizations claiming to be churches also claimed special powers and privileges under the law. Even today, most countries give special legal protections and authority to churches and their leaders.}

Capella, the Latin for "chapel," is most often used as the designation for a place, but it can also be the designation for a group of people associated with a particular chapel (the group who assists the Pope at solemn occasions in the Vatican's Sistine Chapel, for example, are called in Italian the Capelta Papale or Papal Chapel). The religious connotations of the term "chapel" are not prohibited by the rules for submissions, as long as the household does not claim any particular religious authority or special status. The client has enclosed an excerpt from the Catholic Encyclopedia article "Chapel" (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03754b.htm ) which says in part; "the Middle Ages furnish numerous examples of votive chapels erected by the devotion of private persons…." Thus, the term "chapel" is a designator for a group of people who gather together privately and without official approval or authority, and it is an acceptable designator for an SCA household.

{11) Tamsyn Seamarke--New Name and Device

Per pale azure and Or, a seahorse erect bendwise counterchanged.

The client says that Tamsin appears in Withycombe; it does, but not with a date. In fact, Withycombe has the name under the header Thomasin(e) and says that "as Tamasine or Tamsin it still survives in Cornwall." This implies that the form Tamsin is modern--at least, we would need to have some evidence that it is period. I found about a dozen examples of Thomasin in various period sources, but all of them began with Thoma-. Thus, the documentation for Tamsin doesn't quite hold up.

The seahorse in this device isn't quite bendwise--his tail is turned at an odd angle and he's halfway to fesswise. Therefore, we would have to return the device even if the name could be passed. A seahorse bendwise, drawn properly, would look odd but would be an acceptable charge according to SCA rules.}

{12) Theophano the Seed Keeper--New Name and Device

Argent, three chevronels braced and a maple leaf vert.

The client documents Theophano as a 10th-century Byzantine name from a genealogical chart in Brent, The Viking Age. I'm a little suspicious about the use of o as a feminine ending, since ancient and modern Greek don't use it, but I'm not enough of an expert to argue with a reputable written source. She provides no documentation for Seed Keeper, which doesn't follow the any known pattern for English names. Therefore, I can't pass the name as is.

The client did say that she would accept a Greek equivalent for Seed Keeper. A literal translation of Seed Keeper probably not any more historical than for Greek than the English version is for English. No one was able to shed light on a probable Byzantine form. However, I was able to find the Greek word kçpouros, meaning "male gardener," in the New Testament (John 20:15). Brown, The Gospel of John, II:XXX, notes that this word is common in secular Greek writing from the period. The feminine form of this word is kçpourç (êçðïõñç).

Of course, the Gospel of John was written 1000 years before the client's period, but this is the best guess we're going to be able to make--someone in the College might be able to get closer. However, based on the evidence at hand, Theophano Kepoure is a reasonable guess. If this is acceptable to the client, we can send it on.

The device is acceptable as is.}

13) Uilliam Ó Seaghda--New Name and Device

Sable, a fishhook inverted Or.

Submitted as Liam O'Shea. Liam is a modern Irish form of Uilliam, a Gaelic borrowing of William. We contacted the client and he decided to use a standard Gaelic form of his name.

14) Vilk{u,} Urvas, Shire of--New Group Name

The name is Lithuanian for "Wolves' Lair." They enclose a Lithuanian-English dictionary which shows that vilkas means "wolf" and urvas means "cave, grotto, cavern, cavity, hollow." A table of declensions from Variakojytç-Inkenienç, Lithuanian Self-Taught, shows that the appropriate genitive plural for vilkas is vilk{u,}. Thus we have Vilk{u,} Urvas, "the wolves' cave."

This simple construction from a dictionary would not be enough to document a name in a language where we have a lot of dated sources, like English or French. But given that we know little about period Lithuanian naming patterns, I expect that this degree of documentation will be acceptable to the College.

Done by my hand on the xx day of April, anno societatis xxxv, being the feast of saint.

Alan Fairfax, Rouge Scarpe

Alan Terlep
PO Box 214071
Auburn Hills, MI 48326

Disclaimer: This page is not officially sanctioned by the SCA, Inc., the Middle Kingdom, or the MK College of Heralds. It is a private project of the Escutcheon Herald (Paul Wickenden of Thanet) who has based the information published here on publicly-available documentation.