This is the Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon's June 2001 letter. Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended; general comments or replies to commentary are also placed in braces.

Many thanks to Moraig Drummond, Leolin Gofar, Etienne de Clermont, Wilhelm Schatzgeyer, Friedrich von Rheinhausen, Etienne le Couteau des Rouches, Kevin Ambrozijwski, Phebe Bonadeci, Julie Stampnitzky, Mikhail of Lubelska, and Ælfreda æt Æthelwealda for their commentary this month.

Starting this month, I am implementing a slightly new design in the ILoAR, thanks to a wonderful suggestion from THL Eric. After each submission I will print the collated commentary received on each particular item. Hopefully this will give commenters a chance to see what other people are saying, and see what type of comments are influential in my decision making. Also this way, when I respond to questions, I won't be having answers hanging in abstract, but the context that they arose from will be present. I hope this is useful to both commenters and submitters interested in seeing better how the submission process works, and I hope to continue it every month.

{*) Áine ingen Máel Pátraic - New name-pended & device-returned.

Azure, a decrescent, in chief four conjoined foundation knots argent

Both <Áine> and <Máel Pátraic> are found in Ó Corráin & Maguire, the latter s.n. Pátraic. <Áine> was a popular feminine name from an early period on, and <Máel Pátraci> is the preferred early Irish way to use the name and means "devotee of S. Patrick." The client cares most about having a Scots Gaelic name and would like her name to be authentic for the 10th century. She will NOT allow MAJOR changes.

No evidence could be found that either <Áine> or <Máel Pátraic> was used in Scotland. At as early a date as the client is interested in, Gaelic Scotland shared the majority of Gaelic Ireland's name pool, so it is not inconceivable that <Áine> could have been used, but there is no direct evidence. The only Scottish Gaelic feminine names beginning with <A-> that are currently known to us are <Aifric> and <Allasan>, a borrowing of <Alison>. These names can be found at "Some Scottish Gaelic Feminine Names," ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/scotgaelfem/).

It is unlikely that S. Patrick, being an Irish saint, would have been all that revered in Scotland. While many names of the form <Máel-X> or <Gilla-X> are found in 12th century Scotland ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/simplescotgaelicnames12.shtml), <Máel-Pátraic> is not. The only saints-name with <P-> found in the referenced document is <Mael-Petir>, or <Mal-Petir>.

Because the client specifically requested a Scottish Gaelic name, and there is only tenuous evidence at best that either element of her name was used in Scotland, we are pending this to contact the client and determine which is more important to her, the name or the culture.

The device violates the long-standing ban on knotwork in armory, reaffirmed in the 06/01 LoAR, and so is being returned. Additionally, foundation knots have never been registered before; documentation for their use in period armory would be required before they could be registered.}

Name commentary

Device commentary

Polaris & crew: We could find no reference to a "foundation knot". The knotwork in chief is not reproducible from a written description and is, therefore, unblazonable and should be returned for that reason.

Julie: I could not find any record of foundation knots having been registered before. The charge must be documented. The decrescent should be drawn so as to be symmetric about a horizontal line.

Æ & M: Device: Due to long standing precedent (see below), this device should be returned for being knotwork. From THE PRECEDENTS OF MASTER DA'UD IBN AUDA, Decisions from the second year of his second tenure; covering the period July, 1994 to June, 1996:

[registering four Cavendish knots conjoined in cross] There was much commentary on the issue of whether the charge runs afoul of our long-standing ban on knotwork; the consensus here seems to be similar to that of several years ago when we were considering three Wake knots conjoined in pall: "The question is whether the conjunction of the knots diminishes their identifiability to the point where they should not be allowed. In this case, the answer seems to be 'no'. Note, however, that this would not be the case were the knots not of themselves clearly defined period heraldic charges, were the knot itself complex or requiring modification in shape to produce the conjunction (as would be the case with a Lacy knot) or were the numbers so increased...as to diminish the size seriously." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR of 26 November 1989, p. 9) It should be noted, however, that this badge is probably pushing right to the limits of the allowance; an increase of number would probably begin to reduce the identifiability of the separate knots. (Middle, Kingdom of the, 11/94 p. 8)

From the Precedents of Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, Combined Volume September 1986 - June 1990:

The orle is in essence a form of Celtic knotwork, which has been ruled illicit for Society use ("Knotwork is not, by and large, heraldic." Karina of the Far West, July, 1979). (LoAR 28 Dec 86, p. 15)

By long-standing Society precedent braided knotwork is not permitted for Society armoury, however common it may be in Society artwork. (LoAR 26 Jul 87, p.12)

[A pall hummetty, each arm terminating in a unicorn's head and the upper arms elongated and fretted] The pall not only violated the ancient ban on knotwork, but could not be reconstructed from the blazon, ingenious as it was. (LoAR 23 Apr 88, p. 21)

The primary issue here ... is whether the pall of [many] Wake knots could be considered acceptable for heraldic use in the Society or should come under the long-standing ban on "knotwork". The issue is not merely whether the charge or charges can be blazoned..., but whether the charge or charges can be readily identified by the casual observer to be what they are.

Commentary in the College, which was substantially opposed to dropping the ban on knotwork, reflects a reality here. While the conjoint charge can be easily blazoned, it cannot be readily identified without already being aware of the blazoning. Viewed at a distance, the central design element is as likely to be interpreted as a pall invected with some peculiar internal diapering as it is to be interpreted correctly as a conjoining of otherwise identifiable knots. When the separated knots are placed in a standard heraldic position, their familiar outline renders them identifiable. When this outline is diminished, as it is here, by reduction in size and conjoining, they are no longer clearly identifiable. This is the case with virtually all "knotwork", no matter how easily blazonable, and that is the most cogent reason for notpermitting it in the Society. (LoAR 18 Sep 88, p. 14)

[A three-strand Sennet braid] It was our feeling that this fess of braid must fall under the long-standing ban on knotwork. As the interwining of the strands is so important an element of the overall design, it is not really reasonable to blazon the charge as a fess invected and to consider the interior markings as elaborate diapering. (LoAR 30 Oct 88, p. 13)

[Three Wake knots conjoined in pall throughout] The original ban on knotwork was based as much on the problem of its irreproducibility and identifiability as on any question of its use in period.... The question is whether the conjunction of the knots diminishes their identifiability to the point where they should not be allowed. In this case, the answer seems to be "no". Note, however, that this would not be the case were the knots not of themselves clearly defined period heraldic charges, were the knot itself complex or requiring modification in shape to produce the conjunction (as would be the case with a Lacy knot) or were the numbers so increased ... as to diminish the size seriously. (LoAR 26 Nov 89, p. 9)

1) Alienor de Bathe - New name {& device.

Per chevron argent and gules, two suns and an eagle's head erased counterchanged.}

The client attaches a Gabriel Letter (#1710) which documents <Alienor> to 1202 in Talan Gwynek, "Feminine Givens Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" and <Bathe> to 1130 in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Bath. The client cares most about having an English 13th century name and wants to have a name authentic for that language and period. However, she will NOT accept MINOR or MAJOR changes.

{The device is being returned for redrawing. As Julie points out, this is neither "per chevron" nor "on a point pointed." A properly drawn per chevron line should come about two thirds of the way up the shield.}

Name commentary

Kevin & crew: Bath is found in Reaney & Wilson p.31 and dated to 1275.

Device commentary

Julie: This needs to be redrawn- the per chevron line does not come up high enough. As it is it looks like halfway between "per chevron" and "on a point pointed."

{*) Aylwin Thoraldson - Device resubmission.

Per chevron azure and sable, a Celtic cross and in base a decrescent and an increscent argent.

The device is being returned for redrawing. This is neither "per chevron" nor "on a point pointed." A properly drawn per chevron line should come about two thirds of the way up the shield. Additionally, the crescents should be drawn larger.

Celtic crosses are Latinate by default; this does not need to be blazoned.}

Device commentary

Polaris & crew: Parenthesis is not a period charge! (exclamation point) :)

Kevin & crew: Feed chevron and crescents.

Julie: The cross is the primary charge and needs to be mentioned first. Reblazon: Per chevron azure and sable, a Latinate Celtic cross and in base a decrescent and an increscent argent. But it as the same problem as #2; the per chevron line needs to be redrawn much higher.

2) Branwen de Gray of Tewkesbury - Device resubmission.

Quarterly azure and gules, on a cross quadrate throughout argent, a raven sable.

Name reg'd 3/01

The client's previous submission (Vert, in chief two oak leaves Or, in fess two acorns dexter and sinister argent to one oak leaf Or, in base one acorn argent, within a bordure embattled Or) was returned by Laurel on 3/01 for non-period style.

The armory of the Dominican Republic that is protected by the SCA is "Quarterly azure and gules, on a cross argent the achievement of the Dominican Republic (Quarterly azure and gules, on a cross argent, overall a sheaf of four banners azure, gules, and argent surmounted by an open book argent ensigned with a Latin cross Or; the escutcheon within an open wreath formed of a laurel branch and a palm frond vert, in chief on a ribbon azure the words DIOS, PATRIA, and LIBERTAD Or and in base on another gules the words REPUBLICA DOMINICANA Or." Between this and the submitted device, there is one CD for changing the type of cross, and one for the accumulated changes to the tertiary charges.

Device commentary

Polaris & crew: We find in "Flags" by Kent Alexander, 1992, ISBN 0-7924-5752-8, published by Mallard Press, page 147: Dominican Republic, Quarterly azure and gules a cross argent. If there is no functional difference between a cross and a cross quadrate, then there is only one CD for the addition of the raven.

Æ & M: Device: The cross should be blazoned "throughout".

3) Brighid inghean Murchada - Device resubmission.

Per pall inverted gules, Or, and sable, two bat-winged lions combattant Or and gules, a glove palewise argent.

Name reg'd 4/00

The client's identical previous device was returned by Laurel on 4/00 for redrawing of the wings.

{The glove is more distinct on the large emblazon.}

Device commentary

Kevin & crew: Hopefully, the glove is more distinct on your copy.

4) Dyderich Wolfhart - Device resubmission.

Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron and in base a wolf's pawprint argent.

Name submitted on 4/01 MK ELoI

The client's previous submission was returned by Rouge Scarpe on 4/01 for redrawing.

Device commentary

5) John Chandler - New name {& device.

Purpure, a bend argent.}

<John> is dated to the 12th century in Withycombe. <Chandler> is a header spelling in Reaney & Wilson. Dated forms are <le Candeler> 1274 and <le Chandelere> 1285. The client wants a 16th century English name, however he will NOT accept MAJOR or MINOR changes.

{The device conflicts with Felicia Margerye Amondesham (reg 03/01 via the West), "Purpure, a bend between two hands argent." There is one CD for the removal of the hands.}

Name commentary

Æ & M: This spelling of the last element can be as an occupational name to 1602, possibly earlier. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989 - online version Chandler (1)

2. One whose trade it is to make or sell candles. (Also TALLOW-CHANDLER, WAX-CHANDLER.)

1389 E.E. Gilds (1870) 18 Yei shul bene at ye Chaundelers by pryme of ye day. c1400 Destr. Troy 1596 Cokes, condlers, coriours of ledur. 1464 Mann. & Househ. Exp. (1841) 160 To pay the chandeler that ffynd my lordys candyllis, xx.s. 1483 Cath. Angl. 52 A Candeler, candelarius. 1596 SHAKES. 1 Hen. IV, III. iii. 52. 1602 Return fr. Parnass. Prol. (Arb.) 4 We haue promised the Copies to the Chandlers to wrappe his candles in. 1711 Act 10 Anne in Lond. Gaz. 5031/6 Such Chandler or Maker of Candles.

Device commentary

Polaris & crew: We find "Purpure, a bend between two hands argent." Felicia Margerye Amondesham, 3/01. This looks like a classic case of procrastination doing in this particular submitter.

Kevin & crew: Initially we thought it conflicted with Scrope. However, Fox-Davies p.210 has it as Azure, a bend Or. Apparently my copy of the game Kingmaker is misprinted.

Julie: Conflicts with Felicia Margerye Amondesham, Purpure, a bend between two hands argent.

Æ & M: Conflict with Felicia Margerye Amondesham (reg 3/2001) "Purpure, a bend between two hands argent." There is one CD for the removal of the secondaries.

6) Mariana de la Mar - Name resubmission & new device.

Argent, a sea-unicorn contourny vert, a base wavy purpure and argent.

<Mariana> is found four times in Elsbeth Anne Roth's "16th Century Spanish Women's Names" (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~kvs/fnames.html). <de la Mar> is found in Juliana de Luna's "Spanish Names from the late 15th Century" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/locative.html). The client would like an authentic 15th-16th century Spanish name.

Submitted as <Mariana de las Mares Interiores>, meaning "Mariana of the interior lakes," no evidence was provided for the surname and none could be found. The client stated that she would accept <Mariana de las Mares>, but did not include any documentation for this form of the surname either. We have submitted the closest documentable form from her period.

Name commentary

Polaris & crew: Should be pended and the client contacted to find out what she wants.

Kevin & crew: OK. All the client did was to drop the double given name from the original submission. Clients need to be reminded "Incunabula said so" is not documentation. Kevin had the same problem.

Device commentary

Polaris & crew: Should be sent on if no problem is found and the client did not prohibit a holding name.

7) Michael Mackay - New name.

<Michael> is dated to the 12th century in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Michael. <Mackay> is a header in Black, and is dated to 1408. The client would like an authentic Scottish name and cares most about sound. He will NOT accept MAJOR changes.

Name commentary

Kevin & crew: Michael is found Withycombe p.101-102. Reaney & Wilson has Mackay on p.292. This specific spelling is not dated although different forms are dated form 1098-1506.

8) Muirgheal donn ingen Dhauíd - New name.

The client encloses Gabriel reports #2272 and #1668. <Muirgheal> is dated to 1284 in Arval Benicoeur, "Some Scottish Gaelic Feminine Names" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/scotgaelfem/). <Muirgheal> is also dated to 926 in Annals of the Four Masters, entry M926.6. <Donn> means "brown" in Gaelic and is dated to 1103 in The Annals of Ulster, entry U1103.3. <Dhauíd> is found in The Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer, which was the source for "A Simple Guide to Creating 12th Century Scottish Gaelic Names" ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/simplescotgaelicnames12.shtml). The only example is of the name of the biblical King David. She wants an authentic 6th-12th century Gaelic Scottish name and cares most about the language/culture of her name. She will NOT accept MAJOR or MINOR changes to the given name (changes to the other elements are fine).

Name commentary

Kevin & crew: OK. Do we want to be picky about the client wanting a Scots-Gaelic name and using

Irish-Gaelic sources?

{*) Simonis Adriane - New device.

Azure, on a pale Or between two swords inverted argent, a cat salient sable.

This is being returned for redrawing. The cat is neither salient nor rampant, but some place in between. To be rampant, the cat should be standing on one leg; to be salient, both hind feet should be firmly planted.}

Device commentary

Kevin & crew: As mentioned, the cat is more salient than rampant. However, it is not enough to return it for redraw.

Æ & M: Device: We feel the cat is closer to rampant than salient.

Done by my hand this 5th day of August,

Aryanhwy merch Catmael, Rouge Scarpe

Sara L. Friedemann
115 Langdon #B2
Madison, WI 53703

Disclaimer: This page is not officially sanctioned by the SCA, Inc., the Middle Kingdom, or the MK College of Heralds. It is a private project of the Escutcheon Herald (Paul Wickenden of Thanet) who has based the information published here on publicly-available documentation.