This is the Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon's September 2001 letter. Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended; general comments or replies to commentary are also placed in braces.

I would like to thank especially Anne Aliz de Basle, Cathyn Fitzgerald, Pendar the Bard, Kiena Munro, and Alia Marie de Blois, from al-Barran in the Outlands, who commented on the Midrealm letter this month (their commentary is under Fretty, Countess Anne's title). Many thanks also to Hinach ben Josef, Etienne le Couteau des Roches, Kevin Ambrozijwski, Phebe Bonadeci, Dunstan, Ælfreda æt Æthelwealda, and Mikhail of Lubelska for their commentary this month.

{*) Alastríona ingean ui Faolán - New name & device

Per bend sable and vert, a hawk displayed, in chief three two and one triquetras argent.

The only documentation provided for <Alastríona> was from Woulfe, and there is no evidence that the name was used in period. The name is also not in OCM, and therefore we must return this name for lack of evidence that <Alastríona> is an appropriate medieval name. Additionally, while not a cause for return, there are a few spelling changes needed in the patronym: the particle is <uí>, not <ui>, and <Faolán> needs to be lenited and put into the genitive: <Fhaoláin>.

The device is being returned because the name is returned. While we share Fretty's doubts about the style of the device, and whether or not the emblazon could be accurately reproduced from the blazon, these are not significant enough problems in and of themselves to be a cause for return.}

Name commentary

Device commentary

Fretty: The emblazon is beautiful! However, if I were given the blazon in the letter I would not be able to recreate that particular emblazon. I would draw three triquetras in a horizontal row and drop the hawk low enough on the field to make room for the charges in chief. Even if the triquetras were reblazoned as "2 and 1", I would put one in each corner and one more towards the center of the field which would push the hawk even lower. In no way would it ever occur to me to put the wingtips in the upper corners of the shield. I don't think that "throughout" would work, because that implies that the hawk in touching the sides of the shield. Perhaps "Per bend sable and vert, a hawk displayed, between its wings three triquetras two and one argent." The clumsiness of the blazon is a good indication of what poor style this is, but it is probably registerable. Dennis the Wright (3/87 Outlands): Purpure, a phoenix issuant from a base of flames, between its wingtips a mullet Or. Sacred Stone, Barony of the (4/90 Atlantia): Vert, a double-headed phoenix displayed argent, between its wings a heart Or. No conflicts found.

1) Ambra Biancospina - New name & device

Azure, a bend sinister between an owl close affronty and a goblet argent.

<Ambra> is found in "Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence 1427." ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto/). <Biancospina> is Italian for "hawthorn" according to the Hangensheidt Standard Italian Dictionary, p. 148. This exact anthroponym could not be found in other sources, but similar names from "Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/) include <Fazi> "beech," <Bossi> "box," and <Pezzi> "spruce." Based on these <Biancospina> "hawthorn" should be a reasonable surname. The client cares most about meaning and wants an authentic 15th century Italian name.

{To Fretty: The owl's feet are there, they're slightly obscured by being in front of the tail. The feet shouldn't be sticking out, because the bird is close.

To Fretty & Æ&M: This does not conflict with Rhiannon of Berra. There is one CD for changing the type of charges in the secondary group, and one for changing the orientation (contourny vs. normal) of half the charge group. The same CDs can be granted versus Gwendwyn the Silent.}

Name commentary

Device commentary

Fretty: Where are the owl's feet? Even though the wings aren't displayed, the feet should still stick out to either side of the tail feathers. See the owl.gif attached. If the wings were displayed and the feet where in this position, the bird would be returned for "hovering affronty." The only way to get the feet to do this would be to have the owl perched on something. What it is perched on would then obscure the tail feathers and eliminate the problem, but as it is, it will need to be redrawn. The goblet is lovely. Unfortunately, because it has two different types of secondary charges, it no longer qualifies as "simple" and thus conflicts with Rhiannon of Berra (4/99 Atlantia): Azure, a bend sinister between a unicorn couchant reguardant contourny and another couchant reguardant argent. and Gwendwyn the Silent (7/81 West): Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn countersalient and a batwinged manticore couchant argent. In both cases there is only 1 CD for change of type of secondary charge group. One of several relevant precedents: Regan Davis. Badge for Blue Company. Azure, a bend sinister Or between two caltrops argent. This conflicts with Dominique Salluste de Rovere Azure, a bend sinister Or between a tree eradicated and a Latin cross argent. There is just one CD for the type of the secondaries. (LoAR of 6/98 via the Outlands, see also LoAR 9/99, Killian Mackenzie, Outlands.)

Æ&M: We find conflict with Rhiannon of Berra (reg 4/99) "Azure, a bend sinister between a unicorn couchant reguardant contourny and another couchant reguardant argent", and with Gwendwyn the Silent (reg 7/81) "Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn countersalient and a batwinged manticore couchant argent". In both cases, there is only one CD for changing the type of the secondaries.

2) Anabella Makmyllane - Device resubmission

Per fess purpure and vert, a fess between in chief a decrescent between two mullets and in base a mullet argent.

Name reg'd 6/01

The client's previous submission, "Per fess purpure and vert, a fess between three mullets, and enhanced in chief a descrescent argent," was returned by Rouge Scarpe on 2/01 for redrawing of the mullets.

Device commentary

Fretty: The odd placement of the decrescent gives it the appearance of an augmentation, but it is probably still registerable. SCA people are fond of putting one type of charge between two others, like a roundel between an increscent and a decrescent. sigh. No conflicts found.

3) Blædwyn Honestus - New name & device

Argent, a sun between two lightning bolts in pile, on a chief embattled sable, three crescents argent

<Blæd-> is found as a prototheme in Searle, p. 108, and <-wyn> is in ibid, p. 253 as a deuterotheme. The client would prefer <Blædewyn> if possible. <Honestus> is Latin for "honorable" according to New College Latin & English Dictionary. The client cares most about sound.

{To Etienne & crew: There are no Welsh elements in this name. Searle is an Anglo-Saxon source. As Latin was the primary documentary language for early period Anglo-Saxon society, combining Anglo-Saxon and Latin elements should not be a problem at all.}

Name commentary

Etienne & crew: We question the Welsh/Latin mix.

Device commentary

Fretty: The lightning bolts are too steep to be "in chevron". Reblazon as Argent, a sun between two lightning bolts in pile, on a chief embattled sable three crescents argent. No conflicts found.

{*) Fiona Ó Caoindealbháin - New name

<Fiona> was invented in the 19th century by a Scottish author; it is not an appropriate medieval given name. However, it was ruled SCA-compatible in 6/99, so it is registerable. If the client would like to consider an authentic name that was in use in 14th C Ireland, she might like to consider <Fíne>.

The modern anglicized surname <O Quinlevan> is a form of the Gaelic byname <Ó Caoindealbháin> found in Co Clare. (The usual form is <O Quinlan>/<Ó Caoinleáin>). The byname <Ó Caoindaelbháin> means "son of [a male descendent of] Caoindealbhán>. As such, this is not appropriate in a feminine name. The appropriate feminine form of the byname is <inghean uí Caoindaelbháin>. However, since the client did not allow MAJOR changes, we cannot correct the gender of the byname, and therefore must return this name.}

Name commentary

Fretty: The client states "Fiona is just an old Irish name, means Fair." This is not correct. From the Problem Names Project, http://www.medievalscotland.org/problem/names/fiona.shtml "Fiona (pronounced \fee-OH-nah\ [1]) is a given name that was invented in the 19th century by Scottish author William Sharp (1855-1905), who used it for his pen-name, Fiona Macleod [2]. The name did not exist, and so could not have been used, previous to this. While it is very popular in modern Scotland, it is not a medieval name." So if the client is _truly_ interested in having an authentic 14th century Irish/English name, she's SOL. :) Fortunately for the client, Fiona is SCA compatible. (Fiona MacLeod 8/99 Atlantia.) {O'} Caoindealbh{a'}in is found in Woulfe, Irish Names and Surnames, page 451, spelled just that way in the header. It means "gracefully shaped" and is the name of a Meath family who were chiefs of Cinel Laoghaire, near Trim, until the Anglo-Norman invasion. They derive their name from Caoindealb{a'}n (died 925), the lineal descendant of Laoghaire, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, who was King of Ireland in the time of St. Patrick. This would likely not be the 14th century version of the name. By then it would have been anglicized to something like Kennellan, Quinlan, etc. which was not only more fashionable after the Anglo-Norman invasion, but by 1465 was legislated by Edward IV that every Irishman in the pale should take an English surname. Fiona {O'} Caoindealbh{a'}in is registerable. It is not an authentic 14th century Irish name.

Etienne & crew: Fiona found in Withycombe p.56 & Maguire p.56 both date as Modern. However, Kevin being the o.f. that he is *thinks* Fiona is SCA allowable. However, this might just be the onset of Alzheimer's. O Caoindealbhain not found in Grehan, Dictionary of Irish Family Names. Kevin believes it is allowable  as a legal name under Part II, 4-Legal Names p.132.  However, it would be helpful if client could prove  O Caoindealbhain is the Gaelic for O'Quinlivan.

4) Grecia de Canterton - New name & device

Or, three panthers rampant guardant azure, incensed gules, spotted argent.

<Grecia> is in Withycombe s.n. Grace and dated to 1213 & 1346. <Canterton> is in a header spelling in Ekwall. The client would prefer Caunteton, if possible, but the Pennsic Heralds and the Midrealm CoH were not able to find this spelling.

Name commentary

Fretty: Is a date provided for the alternate spelling of the surname? I could not find any additional documentation for Canterton, but Reaney and Wilson under Canter list Caunter as a variant form. So while I can't help with Caunteton, Caunterton seems like a reasonable variant.

Device commentary

Fretty: No conflicts found.

5) Gulli av Grendelag - New name & device

Argent, a rat rampant sable

<Gulli> is dated to 1325 in Lind, Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn, p. 400. <Grendelag> means "a neighborhood or group of farms" according to Einar Haugen, Norwegian-English Dictionary, p. 161. The client will NOT accept MAJOR changes and cares most about sound.

Commenters found a number of possible conflicts for the device. Ommadonn an Luch (reg 8/79) bears "Argent, semy of shamrocks vert, a mouse [Mus musculus domesticus] rampant proper playing an Irish harp Or, stringed vert." There is on CD for the shamrocks, but the blazon is ambiguous as to whether the harp is maintained or sustained, so this is a Laurel call. Also, Friedrich von Waffen (reg 5/84) bear "Argent, a ferret rampant sable"; there is no precedent as to whether a ferret is significantly different from a mouse.

{To Etienne & crew: Geirr Bassi covers Old Norse names from the early Icelandic sagas. Once Old Norse began to split into the West Norse languages (Norwegian and Icelandic) and the East Norse languages (Swedish and Danish), their name constructions, pools, and spellings began to diverge. Lind, West Norse names, covers a later period than Geirr Bassi.

To Æ&M: Vs. Elva, there is one CD for the tincture of the rodent, and one for the removal of the oak branch.}

Name commentary

Etienne & crew: Neither name element found in Gerri-Bassi.

Device commentary

Fretty: A couple of near misses under Beast-Mouse, but under Beast-Weasel we find: Friedrich von Waffen (5/84 Middle): Argent a ferret rampant sable." I searched the precedents and the only thing relevant was: "The consensus of the commentary was that X.2 applies between ferrets and hedgehogs." (LoAR 9/91 p.2). Ferrets are listed under Beast-Weasel and hedgehogs are listed under Beast-Mouse, so this is probably clear. It's a Laurel call.

Etienne & crew: Fox Davies  lists a device with a rat p.163 under the arms of Rattan, but  dates are not given. We all like it especially the members of  House Rodencia.

Æ&M: Possible conflict with Elva Mac Askil (reg 5/99) "Argent, a brown mouse rampant proper and in chief an oak branch fesswise reversed vert", and with Ommadonn an Luch (reg 8/79) "Argent, semy of shamrocks vert, a mouse [Mus musculus domesticus] rampant proper playing an Irish harp Or, stringed vert". In both cases, there is one CD for the removal of the secondaries, but we are unsure if proper/brown is far enough away from sable to count for a second CD.

6) Isabel Fosson - New name & device

Argent, a squirrel statant gules, on a chief vert three acorns argent

<Isabel> is dated to 1284 in Withycombe s.n. Isabel[la]. <Fosson> is a header spelling for an "ancient" name in Morlet, p. 422. The client will NOT accept MAJOR changes. She cares most about having a French Norman 11th-12th century name.

Name commentary

Device commentary

Fretty: Similar concept to, but completely clear of: Duncan MacFergus of Kintyre (12/90 East): Argent, a squirrel rampant and on a chief engrailed vert four acorns argent. No conflicts found.

7) Karen Ingridsdottir - New name & device

Sable, a pentagon within an orle argent

<Karen> is the client's modern name (ID provided). <Ingrid> is from Lind (col 639, under Ingiriðr) which has <Ingridh> 1430 and <Ingerid> 1461. Sveriges Medeltida (IV:543) lists <Cecelia Ingadottir>, showing both the construction and the use of metronymics. The client will NOT allow any changes to the given name and wants a name that means "Karen, daughter of Ingrid." Submitted as <Karen Ingriddotir>, we have changed the spelling of the metronym to a dated form, corrected the grammar of the construction, and corrected the spelling of <-dotir>.

Name commentary

Fretty: Ok, so we have a modern legal name combined with a Norse byname and a device that resembles Japanese Mon. Yee gods. Welcome to the SCA. :) We could not find anything to support the spelling "-dotir". In every case it was spelled "-dottir". There is not one example of "-dotir" ever being registered in the SCA.

Etienne & crew: Karen found in Withycombe p.87 dated as Modern form of Katherine. Ingriddotir is logical construction.

Device commentary

Fretty: No conflicts found.

Etienne & crew: Device isn't just a Toyota, it's a rusted out, half bondo, leaking oil, shredded interior Toyota. (Did we mention we thought it was ugly?)

{*) Lancelot of Windhaven - Device resubmission

Per pale ermine and counter-ermine

Unfortunately, this conflicts with Jo Anne Blue (reg 1/73) "Per pale azure and ermine." There is one CD for the accumulated changes to the field. In returning "Per saltire gules and azure" for conflict with "Per saltire Or and gules" in 11/00, Laurel said: "The only possible rule that could make these clear is RfS X.4.a.ii.b, Complete Change of Tincture (part of the Field-Primary Armory rules); however, that rule states If the fields of two pieces of field-primary armory have no tinctures in common, they are considered completely different and do not conflict, irrespective of any other similarities between them. While each portion of the field has changed tincture, one cannot say that they do not have a tincture in common." The same holds here.}

Device commentary

Fretty: Beautiful! No conflicts found.

Æ&M: Possible conflict with Jo Anne Blue (reg 1/73) "Per pale azure and ermine". There is one CD for changing azure to counter-ermine. We are unsure if reversing which side is ermine is worth a second CD.

8) Leonor Alcon - New name & device

Per chevron vert and argent, three popinjays counterchanged

<Leonor> is found in Juliana's "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century." ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/). <Alcon> is a surname found in ibid. The client cares most about having a Spanish name from 1410-1450 and would like it to be authentic for that time and place.

{To Etienne & crew: This does not conflict with Lie. There is one CD for the field, and one for changing half the tincture of the primary charge group.

To Fretty: Actually, vs. Gaston, there is a CD for changing half the tincture of the birds.}

Name commentary

Device commentary

Fretty: Nice armory. Close but clear of: Gwyn Chwith ap Llyr (11/96 West): Per chevron argent and vert, three owls contourny counterchanged. 1 CD for type of bird, 1 CD for orientation. Gavin Hawkins (10/93 Atlantia): Per chevron embattled argent and vert, three hawks volant, wings addorsed counterchanged. 1 CD for complex line. 1 CD for type of bird. 1 CD for posture. Gaston Tr{e'}voux (10/00 Atenveldt): Per chevron vert and sable, three owls argent. 1 CD for field tincture. 1 CD for type of bird. Nothing for tincture of birds. Alan of Gravesend (3/98 Atlantia): Per fess argent and vert, three falcons rising, wings elevated and addorsed counterchanged. 1 CD for line of division. 1 CD for type of bird. 1 CD for posture. X.4.e does seem to apply between popinjays and these other types of birds. The only precedent involved how poorly a particular parrot was drawn. [a parrot vs a falcon] Though X.4.e. would normally grant a CD for difference between charges considered different in period, the bird here is drawn so that it appears to be more falcon-like than parrot-like, making this a visual conflict. (Aleksandr the Traveller, 6/95 p. 25)

Etienne & crew: Device conflicts with submission 12) Per chevron vert and azure, three martletts argent. Incunabula Pursuivant to the rescue!

9) Lie de Camurac - New name & device

Per chevron vert and azure, three martlets argent

<Lie> is found in 1292 Paris census ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html) as the name of a taverner. <Camurac> is found in Dauzat, Lieux (140) as a header spelling, with <Camuracum> (a variant) dated to 1347. The client cares most about sound and language. She says that she wants an authentic 13th-14th century name but will NOT permit MINOR changes.

{To Etienne & crew: This does not conflict with Leonor. There is one CD for the field, and one for changing the tincture of half the primary charge group.}

Name commentary

Device commentary

Fretty: It's "martlets", not "martletts". No conflicts found.

Etienne & crew: Device conflicts with submission 11) Per chevron vert and argent, three popinjays counterchanged.

10) Oswin de Kokerham - New name & device

Gules, three crosses fleury and on a chief indented Or, two arming buckles sable

<Oswin> is found in Withycombe, p. 236, and dated to the 14th century. <de Kokerham> is found in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Cockerham, dated to 1349. The client cares most about sound and wants an authentic 14th century English name. He will NOT permit MAJOR changes. Submitted as <Oswin De Kokerham>, we have corrected the capitalization of the preposition.

Name commentary

Etienne & crew: Like it!

Device commentary

Fretty: Nice. No conflicts found.

11) Ragnar Karlson - New badge

Per pale gules and argent, two bearded axes in saltire between three mullets all counterchanged

Name reg'd 9/89

Badge commentary

Fretty: I _love_ counterchanging! It makes conflict checking so easy since all we have to look for are two axes in saltire divided per pale argent and gules, or two axes in saltire on a per pale gules and argent field. No conflicts found.

12) Robard Sharparrow - New name & device

Per pale sable and argent, two pheons inverted counterchanged, a bordure gules

<Robard> is dated to 1507 in Withycombe s.n. "Robert". <Sharparrow> is in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Sharparrow and dated to 1568. The client cares most about sound and would like an authentic English name. He will NOT permit MAJOR changes.

{To Etienne & crew: What edition of Reaney & Wilson are you using? My copy (paperback 3rd ed) doesn't have <Robert Sharparrow> in 1364, but <Robert Sharparu>.}

Name commentary

Fretty: Nice name. The Outlands has an award called "Order of Sharparrow" based on that surname.

Etienne & crew: Sharparrow found p.403 Reaney & Wilson, though the first name listed is Robert Sharparrow 1364.Hmm.. sound familiar?

Device commentary

Fretty: No conflicts found.

13) Ryan of Grey Gargoyles - New name & device

Quarterly Or and azure, in bend two lions rampant gules

<Ryan> is the submitter's modern given name (driver's license copy attached). <Grey Gargoyles> is an SCA branch whose name was registered on 4/80.

{To Hinach: These arms are not marshaled; because two of the quarters are plain fields, this would only be marshaled if it was quartering "Or, a lion rampant gules" and "Azure," but since we do not protect single-tinctured plain fields, we do not protect what would be quartering with these arms.}

Name commentary

Etienne & crew: Ryan found in O Corrain & Maguire Gaelic Personal Names p.155 spelt Rian. No date is given, but it is listed as a Saint name. Client has stated that Grey was changed to Gray by the consulting herald at Pennsic because it was misspelled.

Device commentary

Fretty: If there were gold fleurs or gold lions on the blue quarters this would be pretty pretentious. :) No conflicts found.

Hinach: I believe that the lions need to be redrawn larger to keep the device from appearing to be marshalled arms. Hopefully the attachment will show what I have in mind.  Even with this redraw, there could still be problems.

14) Stephen atte Smythe - New name

<Stephen> is in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Stephen and is dated to 1260 as a surname. Ibid s.n. Smith has <William atte Smith> and <Thomas de la Smythe> 1313 and <Robert atte Smyth> 1332. Based on these, <atte Smythe> seems a reasonable variation. There is a Stevie Smith in the Cambridge Biographical Encyclopedia (though not in Britannica) which may be a conflict. If it is a conflict, the client will accept <Stephen Wevere atte Smyth>. <Wevere> is in Reaney & Wilson s.n. "Weaver" and dated to 1296. The client cares most about having an English name from c1300.

Name commentary

Fretty: "Two given names are significantly different only if they differ significantly in sound and appearance. Irrespective of differences in sound and appearance, a given name is not significantly different from any of its diminutives when they are used as given names. Mary is equivalent to the French Marie, since neither the appearance nor the sound is significantly different; Hob is a diminutive of Robert and therefore equivalent to it." The middle element, "atte" means "at the" and is no more significant than "of" "from" or "the", so these do conflict. But just because Stevie Smith appears in the Cambridge Biographical Encyclopedia, doesn't mean his name is important enough to protect. That's a Laurel call.

Etienne & crew: Stephen found in Withycombe p.126 dated appx. 1066.

15) Vilk{u,} Urvas, Incipient Shire of - Appeal of Branch Name Return

This item was pended last month because only one copy of the documentation (and no summary) was included [given that the documentation is extensive, this was an issue].

The client's previous submission was returned by Laurel on 9/00 for implausible grammar and lack of documentation. Further investigation of the return by both the Shire's members and the Escutcheon Herald revealed that the original documentation was never forwarded to Pelican by Laurel's staff. We hope that will not occur this time and the clients have provided a convenient spiral bound copy of the documentation for Laurel's use.

Because of the sheer volume of the documentation, we requested that the Shire provide a summary of the key points, which I quote here in full:

"We feel than an improper decision has been rendered based, in part, on the following:

"According to the Queen Laurel of Arms, the name was rejected because it was the opinion of those commenting that a 'lair' was not a human habitation. As our documentation (if it had remained with our submission) showed, the Lithuanian word 'urvas', means, "cave, grotto, cavern, cavity or hollow", which can be human habitations. She also stated that English names could be used to justify the naming practice, which is included from the College of Saint Gabriel.

"Examples of naming practice being used in various places:

"In England: (from College of St. Gabriel - A Collection of 613 English Borough Names for Use in Locative Bynames by Lord Frederic Badger) - Camelford (1257); Cockermouth (1260); Dunstable (1114); Dunwich (803); Harewood (1266); Mousehole (1267); Oxford (900); Sheepwash (1230); http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ badger/placenames.html

"In Lithuania: (translations & dates): Vilkakiemis - wolf yard : Vilka-(wolf) Ref. #2, page V--34; -kiemas (yard) Ref. #1, page 573); Vilkapieviai - wolf's meadow : Vilka (wolf) Ref. #2, page v-34; -pieviai (meadow) Ref. #1, page 304; Vilku Kampas - wolf's corner : Vilku (wolf), Ref. #2, page V-34; Kampas (corner), Ref. #1, page 110; Elniakampis - deer corner : Elnia (deer), Ref. #1, page 128; kampis (corner), Ref, #1, page 110; Vilkija - wolf's place - Ref. #3; Vilku Kampas - approx. early 4th century or before: date obtained from email from Albina Stundziene, Genealogist with the Balzeka's Lithuanian Museum in Chicago, Illinois that states in part: 'We found some information just on village Vilk{u,} Kampas in Lietuvi{u,} Enciklopedija and Ma{z^}oji Lietuvi{s^}koji Tarybiné Enciklopedija. All information is in Lithuanian language. The exact date when the village was established is not given, but Encyclopedias mention, that there was an Iron Age cemetery here.'

"Vilkaviskis - 16th century: date obtained from Ref. #4, page 131; Vilkija - 14th-15th century: date obtained from Ref. #4, page 133; Elniakampis - 16th century: date obtained from Ref. # 4, page 131 : 'Vilkaviskis, like the other towns of southern Lithuania, was settled in the 16th century.' Elniakampis is in southern Lithuania (see maps at www.multimap.com). Elniakampis is located outside of Vilnius (capital of Lithuania) which is in southern Lithuania.

"Lithuanian References: Ref. 1: Anglu-Lietuvua Kalbu Zodynas - an English/Lithuanian dictionary; Ref. 2: Words-Words, an English-Lithuania dictionary; Ref. 3: Renata Drukteinyte, a Lithuanian resident, who works as an English/Lithuanian translator; Ref. 4: Encyclopedia Lituanica, Volume VI, V-Z. In other areas: [These references were located at the following website: Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer Server ( http://fat-albert.alexandria.ucsb.edu:8827/gazetteer/)]

"Frakas-tanya (Hungary - wolf's den); Katte Straat (Denmark - cat strait); Den Otter (Belgium); Mount Falcon (Ireland).

In the 13th Century, the Teutonic Order invaded Lithuania and established castles and towns. The Order was comprised of people from various countries including England, Hungary and Denmark. It stands to reason, that these people would use naming practices from their home countries when naming these towns. Also, Denmark and Lithuania are both Baltic States and therefore, would probably use similar naming practices. (from The History of Lithuania before 1795, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Jurate Kiaupiene, Albinas Kuncevicius, pages 97-98)

"Based on advice from the Queen Laurel of Arms, it is our opinion that this documentation is sufficient to show that this naming practice has been widely used throughout European history. Much of the existing documentation from Lithuania, was destroyed during the Soviet occupation, so some information is just not available."

The clients care most about meaning ("wolves' lair") and language and would like an authentic Lithuanian name.

Escutcheon's personal two kopecks: I objected to the original return at the time and I support their appeal. The amount of documentation available from this region is little (I can say this because I possess the Society's largest collection of onomastics resources -- about five books! -- from the Baltic region) and they have done much with what could be located.

Rouge Scarpe & the Midrealm CoH's two and some odd pence: We also support the appeal, and commend the submitters for their admirable (if overenthusiastic) amount of documentation.

Name commentary

Fretty: We agree with escutcheon, the group seems to have supplied reasonable documentation for a language/culture from which there is little documentation.

Etienne & crew: We agree with Paul.

Done by my hand this 5th day of November,

Aryanhwy merch Catmael, Rouge Scarpe

Sara L. Friedemann
150 Langdon #B2
Madison, WI 53703

Disclaimer: This page is not officially sanctioned by the SCA, Inc., the Middle Kingdom, or the MK College of Heralds. It is a private project of the Escutcheon Herald (Paul Wickenden of Thanet) who has based the information published here on publicly-available documentation.