This is the July 2003 Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon’s May Letter of Intent. Unless otherwise noted, all clients will accept changes. {Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended; general comments or replies to commentary are also placed in braces}. Thanks to Dugan MacLeod, Angelique Michele d' Herisson, Aryanhwy merch Catmael, Cnute, Pendar the Bard, Talan Gwynek, John ap Wynne, Ælfreda æt Æthelwealda, & Mikhail of Lubelska for their commentary this month.}  

As a reminder to all who see this that assist clients with their submissions, please make sure that all the forms are filled out properly. Last month and this month there were several armory submissions that were missing the black and white mini-emblazon on the forms. While we were willing to copy, cut and paste them this time, if this trend continues we will have to start returning all such submissions regardless of their relative merits.  

When it comes to questionable submissions, there are times I may send on to Laurel some items that some commenters consider to be returnable or borderline. I prefer to give the benefit of the doubt to the client -- after all, it is for THEM that that we are working, and not (just) for our own education. 



1) Andris Richart {der Mailleschmidtt}. (M) New Name.


Names found in “Medieval German Given Names from Silesia Men’s Names” by Talan Gwynek online at . [Andris]~three occurrences 1370, 1386-97, 1497. [Richart]~1347-56. 

Client cares most about having a German language/culture name. 

{[Esct. Comment: The client listed [der Mailleschmidtt] in parentheses. I am not sure if he intended this to be part of the registered name or not. He did not include documentation for it.]

As no documentation was provided for "der Mailleschmidtt", we are dropping that part of the name in order to send it on to Laurel.} 


Name Commentary

Ary - <Andris Richart> is a fine German name, and would be interpreted as <given> + <unmarked patronymic>. I believe <schmidt> should only have one <t>. Compounds with <-schmidt> are certainly found; Brechenmacher s.nn. Goldschmied, Silberschmied has <Goltsmit> 1272 and <Silberschmidt> 1496. I'm not sure what <Maille> means, so I don't know if <Mailleschmidt> is appropriate or not. In any case, I don't think the definite article should be used; it is not found in other examples. Since no documentation was provided for this element and since it isn't clear that the submitter intended it to be part of his name, it should be dropped and the name sent to Laurel as <Andris Richart>. } 


2) Brice Colquhoun for Fellowship of the Oaken Blade. Household Badge Resubmission. ( Fieldless)In cross points conjoined in center four rapiers proper and in saltire stems conjoined in center four oak leaves gules.


{Household Name reg:11/02}

{ The badge was returned by Rouge Scarpe July 2002 for violating RfS VIII.5 Fieldless Style. The original emblazon did not have the charges truly conjoined. He has redrawn the swords and leaves so that they are all truly joined at the center. } 

REBLAZONED AS: Four rapiers cojoined in cross points to center proper, and four oak leaves conjoined in saltire stems to center gules. 

Badge Commentary:

Cnute: (Fieldless), four rapiers in cross points to center proper conjoined

with four oak leaves in saltire stems to center gules


Pendar: This reminded me of a submission from the Outlands that was registered in July 2002. Diana of the Tulips. Badge. (Fieldless) Four tulips gules slipped in cross bases to center conjoined with four leaves in saltire bases to center vert.

Several commenters complained about this kind of rotational symmetry, but Laurel registered it with the note "The armory verges on obtrusive modernity, reminding many commenters of a Pennsylvania Dutch folk art motif."

That obviously didn't keep it from being registered. I imagine that this submission will evoke similar complaints, but that won't bar registration.

This is a fieldless badge, which means there is already one CD for being fieldless. That means the ONLY potential conflicts are from an identical arrangement of identical charges with identical tinctures, which is virtually inconceivable. No conflicts found through 02/03. 

Ary: Blazon-fu:

"[Fieldless] Four rapiers proper conjoined in cross points to center and four oak leaves gules conjoined in saltire stems to center." 


3) Cellach macCormaic. (M) New Name and Device. Per pale and per fess dancetty argent and azure, in bend two stags springing counterchanged.


[Cellach]~ found in “Irish Names”, Donnchadh O’Corrain Fidelma Maguire, p. 48. Several uses one of which was [Cellach Ua Máel Corgais], principal poet of Connacht, who died in 1000.

[Cormaic]~ ibid, p. 60. listed as the tenth most popular name in early Ireland. The client constructed the genitive from the article, “100 Most Popular Men’s Names in Early Medieval Ireland” by Tangwystyl. 

Client will NOT accept MAJOR changes, cares most about language/culture and wishes a name authentic to 11th century Ireland. 

REBLAZONED AS: Per pale and per fess indented argent and azure, in bend two stags springing azure. 

Name Commentary:

Ary: <Cellach> was used by both men and women in the early period; as a feminine name it's found in the Irish Annals in 726 and 732, and as a masculine name it's found in 865. ( The byname should be <mac Cormaic>, with a space. This is a fine early period name, though according to Tangwystyl's article and the Annals article, <mac Cormaicc> would be more in keeping with his period. 

Device Commentary:

Ary: Blazon-fu: "Per pale and per fess _indented_ argent and azure, in bend two stags springing counterchanged." Dancetty can only be used when two sides of the same ordinary are concerned; it's analogous to why we don't use "Quarterly betressed," or the like. 

Pendar: "Counterchanged" implies that these critters are overlying the field division. They are clearly contained in their quarters. Blazon-fu: Per pale and per fess dancetty argent and azure, two stags springing azure. There is no need to specify that they are "in bend" since they can only be on the argent portions of the field. No conflicts found through 02/03. 

Cnute: Per pale and per fess dancetty argent and azure, two stags springing azure

Forced arrangement.

This would be much better as quarterly argent and azure, two stags springing azure, which is also clear.



4) Douglas of Ravenslake. (M) Device Resubmission. Quarterly gules and vert, a bull statant and in chief a sword fesswise Or.

(Grayslake, IL)

{Name sent to Laurel 03/03}

Original device (Quarterly gules and vert, a bull statant Or) returned by Rouge Scarpe March 2003 for conflict with Michael of Shattered Crystal [reg: 9/99] (Gules, a bull passant guardant Or). Client has added another charge in this submission.  

Device Commentary:

Cnute: Quarterly gules and vert, a sword fesswise and a bull statant Or

The sword is large enough to be co-primary.


Pendar: Y'know, this is about the size I would expect to see a sword fesswise if it were the primary charge, which means that these two charges are technically of equal visual weight and this could potentially be blazoned as "Quarterly gules and vert, in pale a sword fesswise reversed and a bull statant Or", but if that were the case, then I would expect each charge to be lying on their own side of the fess line.

No conflicts found through 02/03. 

5) Estrilda Le Siffleur. (F) New Name.

(Dark River)


“Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names”, E.G. Withycombe, p 51 s.n.[Estrild] from OE [Eastorhild] survived as [Estrild] to the 12th century. “A Dictionary of First Names”, Patrick Hanks and Flavia Hodges, Oxford University Press, 1990, p.109, s.n. [Estrild] lists [Estrildis] as a name for a German princess in a legend narrated by Geoffrey of Monmouth. “First Names First” by Leslie Alan Dunkling, lists [Estrilda] as an OE name still in use in the 12th century. “Feminine Given Names in a Dictionary of English Surnames” by Talan Gwynek online at , lists [Estrilda] multiple dates-- 1201 earliest and 1327 latest.

[Le Siffleur] ~

“Larousse Concise Dictionary” French/English section p.484-485 lists [siffler] vi to whistle; (serpent) to hiss <>vt 1. (air de musique) to whistle-2. (femme) to whistle at-3.(chien) to whistle for-4.(acteur) to boo, to hiss-5. fam (vere) to knock back. “Les Familles dans l’ascendance de Isabelle Chédeville” online at lists[Lesuffleur, Marguerite] 1644, and [Lesuffleur, François] 1643.  


Name Commentary:

Ary: The documentation from Hanks & Hodges is pretty much useless, so it should not be included on the ELoI. <Estrilda> is a fine name given the citations from Withycombe and Talan's index from Reaney & Wilson, but it's likely that this is a scribal form, used for documentary purposes only, and that the vernacular form would be <Estrild>. Unfortunately the documentation for the byname is not adequate. Simply finding a word in a dictionary does not mean that it was used as a medieval byname. Also, I'm not sure that the genealogy citations are for even the same word, and at any rate, genealogical websites do not constitute sufficient documentation on their own, per the 04/01 LoAR: 

"The given name was documented from Roberts, Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the NEHGS NEXUS, 1986-1995. While we have no reason to doubt the quality of the genealogical research, the goals of genealogists are different from ours and their data is not necessarily applicable to SCA use. The same issue applies to documentation from genealogy Web sites including They cannot be relied on for documentation for spelling variants." 

I was unable to find <Siffleur> is any of the standard sources (R&W, Bardsley, etc.) 

Talan: Dauzat s.n. <Siffleur>: The modern surname is rare, but it exists, also with the article as <Lesiffleur> and in Normandy as <Lesufleur>. It's from the verb <siffler> 'to hiss, to whistle'; the Old French verb is <sifler>, attested by the 12th century, from Vulgar Latin <sifilare>, corresponding to classical Latin <sibilare>. [1, 2] Vulgar Latin <sifilare> also produced a Middle English verb <syfle> 'to blow with a sibilant sound, to whistle, to hiss', found in the 14th century [OED s.v. <siffle>].  

Petit Robert (French dictionary with etymological notes) dates <siffleur> to 1537, but Dauzat's surname evidence shows that the word is older. (It is not unusual for onomastic evidence to push back the earliest known dates for words. A familiar example is <keep> 'a stronghold': the earliest citation in the OED is from 1586, but Reaney & Wilson s.n. <Keep> has the byname <ate Kepe> from 1327.) There's no way to be sure just how old it is, but this construction of agent nouns from verbs goes all the way back to the Latin agent suffix <-tor> added to the stems of verbs, e.g., <amator> 'lover', from <amare> 'to love'. [3] Another example is Vulgar Latin <portator> 'bearer', from <portare> 'to carry', producing Old French <porteor> and modern French <porteur>. [4] This suffix and its French descendant were as productive as the English agent suffix <-er>, so there would be nothing surprising in a Vulgar Latin *<siflator> 'whistler, hisser', which would similarly have become *<sifleor> in Old French. Note that the productivity of <-eor> means that an Old French <sifleor> could also have been constructed in Old French directly from the verb <sifler> instead of descending from a Vulgar Latin *<siflator>.  

In short, we know that modern <siffleur> goes back at least to the Middle Ages, and it's clear that its Vulgar Latin basis was also used in England. Its normal Old French form, <sifleor>, could go all the way back to Vulgar Latin and could also have been constructed 'on the fly' at any time from the verb <sifler>. There is no reason to doubt that an Old French byname <le Sifleor> could have been used in Anglo-Norman England, just as it apparently was at some point in medieval France; there is certainly no shortage of French bynames in that period. Obviously an attested byname would be better historical re-creation, but this is a reasonable hypothetical re-creation. 

The Old French suffix <-eor> also appears as <-or>, <-ur>, <-eur>, and in Anglo-French as <-our>. The most common spellings in English records of the 13th and 14th centuries seem to be <-our> and <-ur>, though <-eour>, <-eur>, and <-or> are also found. [5] Thus, in English records we might expect the byname to appear as <le Siflour> or <le Siflur>. 

The modern French feminine noun corresponding to <siffleur> is <siffleuse>, but this is irrelevant: feminines in <-euse> didn't appear until the 16th century. In Old and Middle French the feminine suffix <-esse> was widely used to form feminine nouns, especially for nouns in <-eor> from Latin <-ator>, e.g., <lecheresse> 'lewd woman', attested from the 13th century, beside masculine <lecheor>, attested in 1138, and <braceresse> 'female brewer', attested in England ca.1230 - ca.1247 (<Alicia la Braceresse>), beside masculine <braceor>, attested in France in 1250 and as <bracur> in England in 1202. [6, 7, 8] Other examples in England are <Alicia la Venteresse> ca.1230 - ca.1247 [9]; <Alicia le Pesteresse> 1270 'female baker' [R&W s.n. <Pester>]; and <Sibilla le Pestheresse>, <Isolda la Feuresse> 'the smith' and the interesting pair <Rogerus le Feure et Isabella la Feueresse>, and <Juliana le Pumeresse>, all 1279-80 [10]. 

From these we may reasonably conjecture that an early (late 12th or early 13th century) form of the byname might have been carefully feminized to <la Sifleresse>. This is not the only possibility, however, even in the 13th century, when the forename <Estrild> is most likely. Unmodified forms of bynames containing the <-eor> suffix can easily be found, both with feminine <la> and with masculine <le> and even, though rarely and late, with no article. Reaney & Wilson s.nn. <Cater>, <Corner>, <Prockter> offer <Amicia Lakature> 1271 ('the buyer of provisions', probably <la kature> rather than <l'akature> given <Elias le Katur> in the same document), <Agnes le cornier> 1209, and <Johanna la Proketour> 1301. From other sources we have: 

Cristina la Roter 1275 'player on the rote' [11]

Alice le Syur 1285 'sawyer' [12]

Beatrix la Turnure 1285 [12]

Margeria le Peintour 1292 [12]

Alicia le Peyntur 1292 [12]

Agnete Spendure 1301 'steward' [11] 

There may be some tendency for feminine instances to be spelled <-ure>, though the evidence is scanty enough to make it hard to tell. At any rate <la Siflure> and <le Siflur> (among others) are plausible 13th century forms. Indeed, the limited evidence suggests that they may be more likely than the feminized form, especially after the mid-13th century. 

[1] Greimas, Algirdas Julien. Dictionnaire de l'Ancien Français (Paris: Larousse, 1997); s.v. <sifler>. 

[2] A derivative of <sifilare> can be found in Reaney & Wilson s.n. <Petter>, where we learn that ca.1250 Rolland le Pettour ('the farter') held land by serjeantry of appearing before the king every year at Christmas to do 'unum saltum, unum siffletum et unum bumbulum' (a leap, a whistle, and a fart). 

[3] Palmer, L.R. The Latin Language (Norman, Okla.: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1988 [1954]); p. 237. 

[4] Pope, M.K. From Latin to Modern French with Especial Consideration of Anglo-Norman. Publications of the University of Manchester No. CCXXIX. French Series No. VI. Rev. ed. (Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 1952); p. 266. 

[5] Thuresson, Bertil. Middle English Occupational Terms (Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup, 1950; repr. by Kraus Reprints, Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1968); p. 266f. 

[6] Pope, op. cit., p. 305f. 

[7] Greimas, op. cit., s.vv. <lechier>, <bracier>-2. 

[8] Chibnall, Marjorie, ed. Select Documents of the English Lands of the Abbey of Bec. Camden Third Series, Vol. LXXIII (London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1951); p.


[9] Ibid., p. 33. 

[10] John, Trevor, ed. The Warwickshire Hundred Rolls of 1279-80; Stoneleigh and Kineton Hundreds. Records of Social and Economic History New Series XIX (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press for the British Academy, 1992); pp. 45, 60, 331, 193.

(I have not found any information on <pumeresse>, but I suspect that it is 'an apple-woman', from Old French <pom> 'an apple'.) 

[11] Thuresson, op. cit., pp. 187, 118. 

[12] Fransson, Gustav. Middle English Surnames of Occupation, 1100-1350 (Lund: Gleerup, 1935); pp. 157, 166, 177. 

6) Irial Féasruadh ó hIarnáin. (M) Device Change Resubmission. Per saltire Or and vert, three oak leaves in pall, counterchanged.


{Name reg: 11/00}

Original submission (Lozengy Or and Argent, a bear salient gules) was returned by Rouge Scarpe in March 2003 for conflict and lacking good contrast in the lozengy. This submission is a wholly new design. If passed he would like his original device (Ermine, three bendlets sinister enhanced azure and in base a sun in splendor gules eclipsed Or) registered 11/00 (via the West) released. 

Device Commentary

Cnute: Per saltire Or and vert, three oak leaves stems conjoined in pall counterchanged

Ælfwyn Webbestre - May of 2000 (via Ansteorra): Bendy sinister azure and argent, three leaves conjoined in pall vert.

Single CD field, no CD for the tincture of the leaves because less than half of the tincture of the group has been changed.

Return for conflict. 

Pendar: The stems are not quite fully touching, and not quite fully seperate. The bottom one even looks like it's issuant from the line of division. It should be redrawn to have each leaf clearly together or clearly separated. Having a per saltire field division with three objects in pall counterchanged is a fascinating arrangement! I have to wonder if it is period style, but it is blazonable. It doesn't look as though anything like it has ever been registered before. I have a new idea for my next consultation table. :) No conflicts found through 02/03. 

Ary: The oak leaves are _conjoined at the stems_. 


{7) Kastenstadt, Canton of. New Branch Name.


The name [Kastenstadt] is made up of two elements. According to (,html ), German place names are very commonly a compound of a determinant word (Bestimmungswort) and a common root (Grundwort), usually in that order.

The determinant word in this case is [Kasten] which is German for “box”. This is a reference to the Box Bar, a favorite place in our area, where our members meet after our meetings. Furthermore, it was used as a determinant word in the following German place names: [Kastendiek], [Kastenreuth], and [Kastenseeon]. The root of the name is [-stadt] meaning “town’ or “city”. Some examples of German place names with this root are: [Kallstadt], [Karlstadt]. [Karstadt].[Freistadt], and [Darmstadt]. Combined the name means “city of the box” or “box city”.  

Clients will NOT accept MAJOR changes, care most about meaning and wish a German name. Petition of Support included. This canton will be beholden to the Barony of Cynnabar. 

This submission is being returned for further work - no documentation was provided for Kasten- as used. } 


Name Commentary:

Ary: This seems reasonable, but no documentation was provided for the cited examples of names using <Kasten-> and <-stadt>, so I cannot opine on it further. Such documentation is needed before this can be sent to Laurel. 

Talan: 'Box Town' is not reasonable, but the name *may* be salvageable on a completely different basis. I'll try to find time to work on it in the next few days. (I doubt that <Kasten-> in the place-names cited in the ILoI is the 'box' word.) 


8) Katerine del Val. (F) New Name and Device. Vert, in bend three hawk’s lures palewise argent.


[Katerine] is listed in “An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris” online at .

[del Val]~ client says “Talan will provide”

Client will NOT accept MAJOR changes, cares most that her name mean “Katherine of the Valley” in French and if a change must be made to the surname would most prefer [du Val]. 

{We will be including Talan's commentary as documentation when sending this submission on to Laurel. As far as the device, while the internal detailing is a bit much, in the full-size emblazons the hawk's lures are recognizable. We will give the client the benefit of the doubt, and send it on to Laurel. }  

Name Commentary:

Ary Her previous name (Katerine del Val) was returned by Rouge Scarpe 03/02 for lack of documentation of the byname. Her previous device (Gules, a honeysuckle vine bendwise argent with three blossoms Or.) was returned for non-period style and non-identifiability, and a possible conflict. This new submission removes the problems of the old one. 

However, the documentation for the byname is still inadequate. If Talan Gwynek has the appropriate documentation, it should have been secured *before* the resubmission was sent in. 

The byname <du Val> is found twice in Paris in 1423, in my "French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423, & 1438" ( The given name <Katherine> is also found in the same source, five times. 

Cateline de la Mor's "Sixteenth Century Norman Names" ( also has the byname <Duval>, but by the 16th century this was almost certainly an inherited byname rather than a literal surname, so it would not have the meaning that the client wants. 

Another byname meaning 'of the valley', <de la Vallée>, is found in Provins in 1587, in my "Names from a 1587 Tax Roll from Provins" ( 

Given this information, I can support either <Katerine du Val> or <Katerine de la Vallée>, but not <Katerine del Val>. I don't believe that <del> is a preposition that was used in French; at least, I can't find it in my modern French sources. 

Talan: That's probably my fault; she tried, and I thought that I'd sent it, but I've been so busy that I may well have forgotten. Here's an even better set of comments to make up for it. 

The byname is fine: it's simply a southern French form of standard <du Val>, as noted by Dauzat s.n. <Delval>. Other examples of the same phenomenon are southern <Delbarry>, <Delbecq>, <Delblat>, <Delbord>, <Delbos>, <Delbourg>, <Delbruel>, <Delcaire>, <Delcamp>, <Delcros>, and <Delfour>, among many others, all matching standard French forms with <du> (Dauzat s.nn. <Delbarry>, <Delblat>, <Delbourg>, <Delcamp>, <Delcros>, <Delfour>). Yes, these are all modern forms, but this many of them is already enough to show that the dialect difference must go back to the Middle Ages and is prima facie evidence of registerability. 

In fact, however, I can explain how this difference arose. In Old French original <de le> contracted to <del>. (For example, line 4604 of Chrétien de Troyes's 'Erec et Enide' (late 12th century) contains the phrase <sor le col del cheval> 'on the neck of the horse'. [1]) When this contraction occurred before a word beginning with a consonant, the <l> was vocalized to <u>, turning <del> into <deu>; this was eventually simplified to <du>. [2] (A similar vocalization can be seen in the transformation of Old French <maldire> 'to curse, to execrate', from Latin <maledicere>, into modern <maudire>. [3]) 

In Old Provençal, on the other hand, the masculine singular definite article was <lo>, and <de lo> contracted regularly to <del>, which did not undergo vocalization. [4] This is of course the basis for the southern French forms. 

Thus, <del Val> can be justified either as a southern French form from the 11th or 12th century on or as an early (11th or 12th century) Old French form, pre-vocalization. This is certainly sufficient, but in fact there's very likely a third possible source. The noun <val> 'a valley' is masculine in modern French, but it's from Latin <vallis>, which is feminine. The change in gender took place quite early, but there was hesitation between the two genders right down to the 17th century. [5] Dauzat s.nn. <Laval> and <Val> also mentions that the original gender was feminine, and the survival of <Laval> as a surname shows that the old gender persisted in at least some dialects long enough to be fixed in hereditary surnames. In particular, it persisted in the Picard dialect, for which we have for instance <Johan de Laval> 1404. [6] This example is a bit atypical for Picard dialect, however, because in the northern dialects (Picard and Walloon) the feminine singular definite article <la> became <le>, which was not contracted after <de>. [7] Thus, the normal Picard form of the phrase was <de le val>, and indeed we have an example in <Jehan de le Val> 1384; and as the unstressed <e> of the second syllable tended to disappear in speech, this gave rise to a Picard surname <Delval>. [8, 9] (Dauzat doesn't mention this particular example of the northern development of the article, but s.n. <Delbarry> he notes a parallel instance, northern <Delbecque>, contracted from <Delebecque>.) The only remaining question is when the Picard written forms <del Val> and <Delval> actually appeared, but this is likely to have been in the 15th or 16th century. 


[1] Ewart, Alfred. The French Language. 2nd ed. (London: Faber & Faber Limited, 1943); p. 365.

[2] Pope, M.K. From Latin to Modern French with Especial Consideration of Anglo-Norman. Publications of the University of Manchester No. CCXXIX. French Series No. VI. Rev. ed. (Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 1952); p. 325.

[3] Dauzat, Albert. Nouveau Dictionnaire Étymologique et Historique (Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1964); s.v. <maudire>.

[4] Mendeloff, Henry. A Manual of Comparative Romance Languages (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, Inc., 1969); p. 81.

[5] Pope, op. cit. pp. 304-5.

[6] Morlet, M.-T. Étude d'Anthroponymie Picarde (Paris: Les Presses du Palais Royal, 1967); p. 333.

[7] Einhorn, E. Old French, A Concise Handbook (Cambridge Cambridge Univ. Press, 1974); p. 138.

[8] Morlet, op. cit., p. 334.

[9] Lebel, Paul. Les Noms de Personnes en France. 6th ed. (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1968); p. 78. 

Device Commentary:

Cnute: The heavy dark internal detailing interferes with the contrast and makes the lures difficult to identify, violating RfS VIII.3.



Pendar: Nice! No conflicts found through 02/03. 

Ary: The device looks clear from conflict. Very lovely! 


{9) Katerine del Val. (F) New Badge. (Fieldless)A tower azure. winged Or, transfixed palewise by a sword proper .


Name submitted this letter. (item 8) 

{Returned for violation of RfS 8.3 - Identifiability. The tower is not "transfixed" by the sword - it is on the sword, reducing the latter's identifiability greatly. }  


Badge Commentary:

Cnute: (Fieldless), a sword inverted proper overall a tower azure winged Or 

...I will be returning cases where the underlying charge is rendered unidentifiable, per Rule VIII.3; this will include the most egregious cases of overall charges (e.g. A pheon surmounted by a hawk's head). But this can be done as an interpretation of the current Rules, and needn't involve a new policy. In cases where identifiability is maintained --- where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection small --- overall charges will still be permitted in fieldless badges. (15 January, 1992 Cover Letter (November, 1992 LoAR), pg. 3) Precedents - Bruce, under Charge - Overall 

This area of intersection is not small. 

Return for violating RfS VIII.3 

Pendar: If the sword were coming out a door or window I might be inclined to say that the tower is "transfixed" by the sword, but this is technically just "(Fieldless) A sword inverted proper surmounted by a tower azure winged Or."

No conflicts found through 02/03. 

Ary: This too is not a new badge, but a resubmission. Her previous badge, "[Fieldless] A tower azure winged sable, transfixed palewise by a sword proper," was returned by Rouge Scarpe in 03/02 for administrative problems. While the drawing problems mentioned in the previous return have been address, I still feel that the overall style issues remain, and I quote from part of the previous return: 

"Concerning the badge, we can do no better than to quote a previous Laurel. The following device was registered to William Bohun of Vatavia (reg 12/83) with these comments: "Azure, a sword inverted Or surmounted by a skull argent between in fess a pair of wings, all between three roses Or. NOTE: This is poor style and is still rather reminiscent of a Grateful Dead cover or a biker emblem. It would be much better without the skull." Much the same can be said of this badge in that it is not very reminiscent of period style.  

However, by changing the tincture of the wings and redrawing them as clearly birds' wings, the problems with identifiability are reduced, so this is probably registerable. 


10) Lassar Fhina ingen Niell (F) New Name .

(Three Walls)

Name found in various spellings in “Index of Names in Irish Annals: Lasairfhíona” by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan online at

Client will NOT accept MAJOR changes and care most about an Irish language/culture name. 





Name Commentary: 

Ary: <Lassar Fhína> (note accent) is the standard pre c.1200 spelling of the name. The standard later form is <Lasairfhíona>, and it is found in the Irish Annals 8 times between 1239 and 1527, according to "Index of Names in Irish Annals" ( Since there isn't evidence for <Lassa Fhína> in early period, I recommend changing this to the later period spelling. In that case, the word for daughter would be <inghean> instead of <ingen>. <Néill> (note accent and spelling) is the genitive of <Niall>, which is found 21 times in the Annals between 1057 and 1611. <Lasairfhíona inghean Néill> is a fine post c.1200 Gaelic feminine name. 


11) Lulach Cauldwell. (M) New Name{and Device. Azure, a bend sinister between two hands apaumy argent.}


[Lulach] found in “Scottish Gaelic Given Names” by Sharon L. Krossa at dated to 11th-12th century.

[Cauldwell] Reaney & Wilson p. 80 s.n. [Caldwell] dates to 1381.

Client will NOT accept MAJOR changes, cares most about sound, and wants a name authentic to a 12th to 14th century English-Scot. 

{The device is being returned for multiple conflicts, including Gruffydd of Rivenoak (reg 12/97) "Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister between two hands appaumy argent, Gwendwyn the Silent - (7/81) "Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn countersalient and a batwinged manticore couchant argent", Rhiannon of Berra - (4/99) Azure, a bend sinister between a unicorn couchant reguardant contourny and another couchant reguardant argent. } 

Name Commentary:

Ary: No further information on <Lulach> is given on Effrick's page, but it is listed under the header of "names of Scottish Gaels found in Scottish Gaelic sources" so it is likely in a Gaelic form. As a Gaelic name, though, it is not appropriate in an English/Scots name. He may want to consider a name that is actual found in English or in Scots during his time period, if he wants an authentic name. There are, however, very few English or Scots masculine names beginning with <L->, and I didn't find anything that was all that similar to <Lulach>. <Lowrens>, a form of <Laurence>, is found in Symon Freser's "13th & 14th Century Scottish Names" (

In English, I find <Landr'> (a scribal abbreviation for some unknown name), <Laurence>, <Luke>, and <Lucas> in Mari's "An Index to the 1332 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Lincolnshire, England" (, and <Laurentius> (a Latin form) in my "14th Century Worcestershire Names" ( Earlier, the names <Lambert>, <Laurence>, <Leo>, <Leofwan>, <Louis>, and <Luke> are found in Nicolaa de Bracton's "A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England, 1182-1272" (, and <Lagot>, <Laurencius>, <Leonardus>, and <Letard> are found in Talan's "Given Names from Early 13th Century England" ( These would all be appropriate for an English name. 

Talan: It is. From Black s.n. <Lulach>: 'The name of the unfortunate son of Gillacomgan, mormaer of Moray, king of Scots for seven months, and killed in 1057/8. The corresponding patronymic is <mac Lulaich>; Black s.n. Maclulich offers <Ywar Mac Lulli> 1350, <ffinlay McLuiloig> 1692, and <Dun: mc Clullich> 1692. Scottish naming was very fluid in the 12th century, with the different linguistic strands mixing more than before or after, and <Lulach> conforms to English as well as Gaelic spelling principles; in principle a 12th century <Lulach de Caldwell> or the like probably isn't out of the question, though this is one on which Effrick's opinion would be useful. 


Device Commentary:

Aelfreda & Mikhail: Device: Conflict with Gruffydd of Rivenoak (reg 12/97) "Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister between two hands appaumy argent." There is one CD for changing the field. 

There is also possible conflict with Rhiannon of Berra (reg 4/99) "Azure, a bend sinister between a unicorn couchant reguardant contourny and another couchant reguardant argent" and with Gwendwyn the Silent (reg 7/81) "Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn countersalient and a batwinged manticore couchant argent." In each case, there is one CD for changing the type of the secondaries. We are unsure if changing the orientation of 1/2 of the secondaries would produce a CD versus the two identical hands. 

Cnute: Lulach Cauldwell - Azure, a bend sinister between two hands apaumy argent. 

Azure, a bend sinister between two hands argent 

Gwendwyn the Silent - July of 1981 (via the West): Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn countersalient and a batwinged manticore couchant argent. 

Rhiannon of Berra - April of 1999 (via Atlantia): Azure, a bend sinister between a unicorn couchant reguardant contourny and another couchant reguardant argent. 

Single CDs for type of secondaries. 

Gruffydd of Rivenoak - December of 1997 (via the West): Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister between two hands appaumy argent. 

Single CD for field. 

Return for multiple conflicts. 

Pendar: Conflicts with Rhiannon of Berra (4/99 via Atlantia): Azure, a bend sinister between a unicorn couchant reguardant contourny and another couchant reguardant argent. And Gwendwyn the Silent (7/81 via the West): Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn countersalient and a batwinged manticore couchant argent. In both cases there is only 1 CD for changing the type of secondary charges. 

Ary: The device conflicts with Gruffydd of Rivenoak (reg. 12/97 via the West), "Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister between two hands appaumy argent," with just one CD for the field. 


{12) Nicolaa de Bracton of Leicester. (F)Badge Resubmission. Or, a mullet gules.

(Columbus, OH)

{Name reg: 4/94}

Original badge submission (Fieldless) On a mullet gules, another Or) returned by Rouge Scarpe Nov. 2002, for conflict with Astra Christiana Benedict ([Tinctureless] On a mullet a cross crosslet) (reg’d 6/86). Client has added a field and uncharged her mullet.  



13) Raphael de Cernia. (M) New Name.

(Marche of the Marshes)

[Raphael]~Italian painter born 1483. “WebMuseum, Paris” at

[de Cernia]` “Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names” by Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek online at

“locative, probably based on some Slovenian or Croatian place name. De Felice, Cognomi, s.n. Cerne, derives that surname from Slovene {c^}rn or Croat crn or crnac 'black'.” 

Client will NOT accept MAJOR changes and cares most about sound. He is interested in having an Italian name.  

{ We are changing the name to Raffaello de Cernia, to match the client's documentation and in keeping with his desire to have an Italian name. Our sources show Raphael as an English spelling of Raffaello. } 


Name Commentary:

Ary: <Raphael> is an English form of the name. Italian forms that I've found are <Raffaele> in my "Names from Arezzo, Italy, 1386-1528" (, and <Raffaello> in "Italian Names from Florance, 1427" ( If he would like an authentic Italian name, this should be changed to either <Raffaele> or <Raffaello>. 


{14) Sarah Wright. (F) New Name.

(Hawkes Keye)


Reaney, P.H., & R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames (London: Rutledge, 1991; Oxford University Press, 1995); s.n. Sara

Withycombe, E.G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988); s.n. Sara


Found in “Surnames in Chesham:Q-W, 1538-1600/1” by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan online at dated to 1561. 

Client wants a name suitable for 16th century England cares most about language/culture and will accept any spelling variant of [Sarah] or [Wright] if necessary for registration. 

{ This was a tricky submission to deal with. Although the name is fine as documented, on the submission forms under Legal Name, the client has written "Sarah Strutz (Wright) maiden" This would seem to indicate that Sarah Wright is her maident name. From the Administrative Handbook, III.A. 9.

From the Precedents of Da'ud ibn Auda:

As Sarah Wright is a name legally available to her to be used at any time, and is one of her legal names, we must return this submission. } 


Name Commentary:

Ary: The name is fine. <Sara> 1569 and <Saraa> 1577/8 are found in the same source as cited for the byname. In my "16th Century Gloucestershire Names" ( names/late16.html), <Sara> is found once. Three people were christened <Sara> in 1565, 1592, and 1572 in my "16th Century Names from Ormskirk Parish Registers" ( Ah hah! A <Sarah> was married in 1594, according to my"Names found in Frocester, Glouchestershire Marriage Registers 1559-1600" ( Thus, while the submitted spelling is clearly not the most common, it is fine for late 16th century England. 


15) Valla Lùta Kolladóttir. (F) New Name and Device. Azure, a garb between 3 crosses bottony argent.

(Frankfort. IN)

[Lúta]~ Geir Bassi Haroldson, p. 13 woman’s name

[Valla]~ Geir Bassi Haroldson p.29 descriptive byname

[Kolli]~ Geir Bassi Haroldson p.12 man’s name, p.17 says [Kolli] becomes [Kolladóttir] 

Client wants a name authentic to 10th century Norway and cares most about language/culture. 


Name Commentary:

Ary: These are not new submissions but resubmissions. Her previous name, <Valla-Lúta Kolladóttir>, was returned by Laurel in 04/02, because it was withdrawn by kingdom in 01/02. Her previous device, "Azure, a garb between three crosses bottony argent," was returned at the same time for the same reason. 

All the elements of her name are found in Geirr Bassi. <Valla-> is a prepositional descriptive byname meaning "Field-". <Lúta> (note accent; Old Norse does not, as far as I know, use grave accents.) is a feminine given name. <Kolli> is a masculine given name, which becomes <Kolladóttir> as a patronymic. To be grammatically correct, this should be <Valla-Lúta Kolladóttir>. 

The client may be interested to know that in the 10th century, the Norse languages had not yet diverged. The names are found in Icelandic sagas, and the Old Norse spoken in Iceland at that time was the same West Norse that would develop into Norwegian. So these names would be appropriate for a Norse lady living in Norway, but they are not (strictly) Norwegian. 

Talan: It occurs exactly once, as the name of a 10th century Icelander (Lind s.n. <Lúta>). Fortunately, one of the early Icelandic settlers was named <Kolli>, and the name remained in use in Iceland (Lind s.n. <Kolli>). There are two examples of the byname <Valla->: Valla-Brandr was a great-grandson of one of the settlers, and Valla-Liótr Álfs son lived in Iceland ca.1000. Each was named after a farm named <Vellir> 'fields'. [Lind (binamn) s.n. <Valla-Brandr>, <Valla-Liótr>] 

And indeed the name is most likely in 10th century Iceland. The lady might (or might not!) want to know that <Lúta> is from the adjective <lútr> 'bent down, stooping'; presumably it, like <Gamall> 'old' and a number of others, began life as a byname and only later became a forename. 


Device Commentary:

Cnute: Clear 

Pendar: No conflicts found through 02/03. 


16)Wulfgar Hlotharius von Aachen. (M) Badge Resubmission. (Fieldless) A sea-unicorn erect sable maintaining a sword proper.

(Parma Heights, OH) 

{Name reg:1/98}

Client’s original badge submission (Per bend sinister embattled Or and sable, a unicorn's head couped argent) returned by Rouge Scarpe Sept 1999 for conflict with Isabella d'Hiver,( Azure, a unicorn's head couped argent collared gules). This badge is a new design.  

{ This submission seems to fall right between past rulings. There IS a CD for a unicorn vs. a horse. There IS NOT a CD between a winged sea unicorn and a winged sea horse. But what about a regular sea unicorn and a sea horse? We feel there is enough difference to give the client the benefit of the doubt, and send it on to Laurel for a final decision. } 

Badge Commentary: 

AElfreda & Mikhail: This badge uses the same primary as his device (reg 1/98) "Per bend sinister embattled Or and pean, in chief a sea-unicorn erect maintaining a sword sable." 

Versus the device of Leif of the Blue Mountains (2/75) "Ermine, a sea-horse sejant sable, finned, scaled and unguled Or", there is one CD for changing the field. We are unsure of the current Laurel precedents of sea-horse vs. sea-unicorn. It is also possible that the sea-horse in Leif's device has enough cumulative "Or bits" to change 1/2 the tincture, thus providing the second CD. 

In the online ILoI, we can't tell if the sword has an Or hilt or not. (Is is proper, or just argent?) 

Cnute: (Fieldless) A sea-unicorn sable maintaining a sword argent 

Leif of the Blue Mountains - February of 1975: Ermine, a sea-horse sejant sable, finned, scaled and unguled Or. 

CD fieldless, CD sea-unicorn vs sea-horse since the submission is clearly bearded and horned. What kind of posture is sejant for a sea-creature? 


Pendar: My, what a sexy sea-unicorn! :)

There is a potential conflict with

Leif of the Blue Mountains (2/75): Ermine, a sea-horse sejant sable, finned, scaled and unguled Or. 

The little gold artistic details do not count for difference. I don't know if the posture of "sejant" counts for difference in this case or not.

I don't believe any difference is granted between a sea-horse and a sea-unicorn even though difference is granted between horses and unicorns.

[a winged sea-horse vs a winged sea-unicorn] This conflicts ... While a horse is a CD from a unicorn, the addition of wings and fish tail to each creates an overwhelming similarity with which the remaining details of the horn and beard cannot compete. (Anastasia Elizabeth Courteney, 2/98 p. 18) 




Done by my hand this 25th day of July, 2003 




Rory mac Feidhlimidh, OP

Rouge Scarpe Herald

820 E Monroe

Bloomington, IL 61701

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