This is the October 2004 Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon’s August 2004 Letter of Intent.

Unless otherwise noted, all clients will accept changes. Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended. Commentary, rulings, etc. by Rouge Scarpe are placed in small cap print. Thanks to Canute, Mikhail and AElfreda (M&A), the SW Ohio Commenting Consortium (Ohio), John ap Wynne, Aryanhwy (Ary), and Master Talan Gwynek for this month’s commentary.


1) Allissaid {Neyn} Cunningham (F) New Name and {Device -- Argent, a shakefork gules between two coneys sejant erect confronte }
Reblazoned: Argent, between two coneys sejant erect respectant sable marked argent, a shakefork gules.

[Allisaid] -- "Scottish Gaelic Given Names: For Women," by Sharon L. Kross
From St. Gabriel Report 2659: "We believe that the particular spelling, <Allissaid>, though found at the end of your period, is plausible for about the last half, i.e., throughout the 15th century, but only in a document using the Lismore-style spelling.

[Cunningham] -- Surnames in Durham and Northumberland 1521-1615 ( lists c. Cunningham 1615 sites Alexander Cunningham 1462

(Esct Note: The Client isn't sure about "Neyn" in the cover letter she states: "In studying my name more, I have come across one question that I cannot find a conclusive answer for. That is whether I should add the "neyn" before the surname or not. I put a parenthesis around it on the form with a question mark. In previous research it appeared that this should be part of my name, ... it appears that for my time period and area of Scotland in the late 15th century, early 16th century the "Neyn" is not needed.")

No documentation was submitted for "Neyn" and client wishes for the spelling of Allissaid as her persona is Lowland Scots.

Name Commentary

John – Allissaid: I don’t find this particular spelling anywhere but the client’s submission, but since Lismore is period, I’m sure it’s acceptable. Nonetheless, see Conway (p. 62), listing ‘ealasaid’, the Scots-gaelic form of “Elizabeth”; also Zaczek (p. 23), listing ‘Elissaid’ and ‘Elasaid’. Dwelly (p. 1013) has ‘Ealasaid’.

Neyn: not a common spelling of this, it looks more like a late Anglisised variant. See Dwelly (p. 698) –usual Gaelic spellings were ‘nighean’ or ‘nighinn’.

Cunningham: see Black (pp. 192-193); Conway (p. 170); Dorward (p. 61); Grimble (pp. 61-62).

Talan - > [Allisaid] -- "Scottish Gaelic Given Names: For Women," by Sharon L. Kross

Her surname is Krossa.


It's better to use the URL <>.


> [Cunningham] -- Surnames in Durham and Northumberland 1521-1615

> (

> lists c. Cunningham 1615

The ‘c.’ here is meaningless and unnecessary.

> sites

No, it cites.

> Alexander Cunningham 1462

Note that it uses modern spellings throughout, so at most this indicates that some form of the name was in use in 1462. The website is correct in noting that the surname Cunningham is locative in origin. Indeed, the citations at Black s.n. Cuningham consistently show it used with the locative preposition de right into the 15th century: de Kuningham ante 1190; de Cunigham 1246; de Cunyngham 1269, ca.1317; de Cőgheime 1375; de Conyngham 1370; de Cuningham 1403; and de Cunygam ca.1431.

16th century spellings noted by Black include Conighame 1568, Cuninggame 1546, Cunyghame 1548, Cunnyngayme 1580, Cunningghame 1556, Cunnygam 1503, Cunyngame 1553, Cwnygham 1552, and Cwnyghame 1550. Modern Cunningham is within the documented range, though I suspect that Cuningham is actually likelier.

(Esct Note: SNIP)

Not only is it not needed, it makes no sense. Neyn is a Scots spelling of nighean, the Scottish Gaelic word for ‘daughter’ from about the 16th century on. (It developed from and replaced earlier inghean.) It must be followed by a forename and cannot be followed by a place-name.

> No documentation was submitted for "Neyn" and client wishes for the spelling of Allissaid as her persona is Lowland Scots.

So why did she pick a Gaelic forename? If she's Lowland Scots, she should be Elspet; this form was even used for recording (in Scots) the names of some Gaels, as Sharon points out in the article at the first URL cited above. Elspet Cun(n)ingham is a fine 16th century Lowland Scots name; Allissaid Cun(n)ingham is not.

Device Commentary

Canute - Argent, a shakefork gules between two coneys sejant erect respectant sable marked argent

The shakefork should be wider with a bit more separation from the corners of the shield.

The fact that the rabbit's identifying ears and tail completely lack contrast with the field is a serious problem. This is unidentifiable and needs to be redrawn. The ears are an important identifying attribute of a rabbit and really should be erect.

Clear Redraw

Ohio -    Confronte is not an appropriate descriptor for this position, though it is rather intuitively derived. We believe the proper term would be sejant erect respectant. The shakefork is pretty severely underfed, and there could be questions about some contrast on parts of the coneys as presented. A less realistically shaded rendering might be helpful. Recommend re-draw.

Ary - 'Confronte' is not a standard SCA blazon. The coneys are 'sejant erect respectant'. I found no conflicts.

Talan - Confronte is not a term of blazon (and would be confronty in English if it did exist); these beasties are sejant erect respectant.

Name passed to Laurel per clients wishes for a final determination on spelling. The ‘neyn’ will be removed.

Although the PicDic nor Parker specifically indicate a position for the ‘ears’, I agree that these coneys are hard to identify as drawn. Device returned for redraw with a suggestion to leave off the white and make them a consistent sable as well as erect ears and a larger shakefork.

2) Anton du Marais (M) New Name and Device -- Azure, two falcons combatant argent, beaked and membered Or, on a chief Or, three fleur-de lis sable.

Reblazoned : Azure, two falcons passant respectant argent beaked and membered and on a chief Or three fleurs-de-lys sable

[Anton] -- Withycombe under Anthony
"Diet of Period Russian Names," by Paul Wickenden of Thanet c. Anton Sholukha 1552

[See Antonli]

[Marais] -- French for swamp or marshy area. Also one of the oldest districts in Paris
"Dietionnaire Etymologigue Des Noms de Famille et Prenoms De France," Albert Dauzet, published 1951, p 413 under Marais

Name Commentary

Ohio - Name from Withycombe is straightforward, as does Marais. Otherwise, we know of a French composer names Marais who lived at the extreme end of period. Presumably he had a father so we extrapolate that the name falls within period, albeit late, at least.

Talan - > [Anton] -- Withycombe under Anthony > "Diet of Period Russian Names," by Paul Wickenden of Thanet

That's Dictionary of Period Russian Names.

> c. Anton Sholukha 1552

I haven't said anything before today, but this use of ‘c.’ to mean (apparently) ‘citation’, ‘citing’, or something of the sort is really inappropriate: it's completely non-standard, and in the context of dated citations ‘c.’ can normally be expected to mean ‘circa’. Use ‘has’, or a colon after ‘Thanet’.

It should be stated explicitly that the citation is found s.n. Antonii. But it's rather pointless to cite a Russian source as evidence for a French name.

The usual French forms are Antoine and Anthoine, and so far I have found only these and the minor variants Antoinne 1292 and Antoyne 1292 in French sources.

> [Marais] -- French for swamp or marshy area. Also one of the oldest districts in Paris "Dietionnaire Etymologigue Des Noms de Famille et Prenoms De France,"

With English capitalization that should be: Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France

With French capitalization: Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de famille et prénoms de France

> Albert Dauzet,


> published 1951, p 413 under Marais

Dauzat says that the surname is widespread and of locative origin; he does not give the meaning, which is obvious in French, and he does not say anything about Marais being the name of a district in Paris (though it's true enough: see, e.g., the brief history of Le Marais at <>, or the brief description of the 3čme arrondissement at <>). What Dauzat does do that's useful here is note that the fused form Dumarais is also a widespread modern surname; this shows that the locative byname du Marais must have been in use in the SCA period.

Device Commentary

Canute - Azure, two falcons respectant argent and on a chief Or three fleur-de lis sable

The chief should be a bit wider.


Ohio -   Device generally reasonable (blazon misspellings aside), though we take issue with the use of combatant. We are doubtful about the use of combatant here, as, with only two functional legs it seems impossible to distinguish between a couple of postures. Simply respectant was discussed, but deemed to not adequately describe the actual posture of the individual birds, only that they face each other across the centre line. To describe these as combatant would imply that the individuals are rampant, which cannot be well established, in our opinion, as to be differenced from passant. Without the effective parts and bits to be individually rampant, we suggest the term passant respectant as an alternative to a more complex and awkward blazon. The details of the falcons are probably irrelevant for differencing and registry purposes, but not unseemly. With these in mind, we would reblazon, "Azure, two falcons passant respectant argent beaked and membered and on a chief Or three fleurs-de-lys sable." It wouldn't be a bad thing if the chief were a bit wider, but it is sufficient enough that we do not feel this justifies return for redraw.  Recommend pass with stronger blazon fu.

Ary - Some typos: 'combattant', 'fleur-de-lys'. Current SCA practice is to leave the details such as beaking and membering as artistic license, and not blazon them. I found no conflicts.

Talan - Redundant Or, and the plural of fleur is fleurs: Azure, two falcons combattant argent beaked and membered and on a chief or three fleurs-de-lis sable.

As the client is most concerned about the sound of the name for 15th – 16th Century France it will be changed to Antoine and passed to Laurel. Note to Ohio – Anton as listed in Withycombe is listed as Slav.

The device is problematic but I will pass it on to Laurel using Ohio’s suggested blazon as it most closely fits, although not precisely. “Parker” lists passant as ‘walking’ which is close to what is represented here. I am willing to attempt to give the client what they want as this is otherwise very nice arms. Note to Ary – while I can agree about the beak as artistic license, the feet are noticeably Or and I feel more comfortable blazoning them as such.

3) Collumb mac Muiredach (M) New Name and Device -- Argent, a saltaire sable between four escallops azure

[Columb] -- "100 Most Popular Men's Names in early Medieval Ireland," by Heather Rose Jones, last updated Jan. 2002, p4.

[mac Muiredach] -- "A Simple guide to Constructing 12th Century Scottish Gaelic Names," by Sharon L. Krossa, last updated 18Jun 1997, p 4

Client cares most about meaning and wants an 11th Century Scottish name.

Name Commentary

Ohio -  Both name and device seem simple, straightforward and quite nice. Combining an Irish Scottish name seems reasonable to us, but we leave any debate to the  more onamastically inclined.  Recommend pass.

John – Columb: there was, of course, the early Celtic Saint Columba; but see O’Corrain/Maguire (p. 55); Conway (p. 33) under ‘Colm’. Also Todd (p. 97).

MacMuiredach: see Black (p. 620) under ‘Murdoch’; several spellings offered but most notably: ‘Muiredach’ (quoting Lismore); also see Dorward (pp. 254-255).

Talan - > [Columb] -- "100 Most Popular Men's Names in early Medieval Ireland," by Heather Rose Jones, last updated Jan. 2002, p4.

Note that the cited form is Columb, not Collumb; is Collumb a typo in the ILoI?

> [mac Muiredach] -- "A Simple guide to Constructing 12th Century Scottish Gaelic Names," by Sharon L. Krossa, last updated 18Jun 1997, p 4


> Client wants 11th Century Scottish name.

Columb appears to be exclusively a very early name; I can find no evidence that it continued in use much past the age of saints, let alone into the 11th century. Its derivative Máel Coluimb ‘devotee of Columb’ (referring to St. Colmcille), on the other hand, was quite popular in Scotland, especially in the royal family (Ó Corráin & Maguire s.n. Máel Coluim). Black s.n. Malcolm offers Malcolumb 1094 and several 12th century instances of the name, and in the 12th century Notes to the Book of Deer it appears as Malcoluim, Malcolum, and Malcoloum (see Sharon's ‘Simple Guide’ article cited above).

The article does not support the form mac Muiredach. After mac the genitive case is needed; in normalized pre-1200 spelling – the kind that matches the nominative Muiredach that would be Muiredaich or Muiredaig, and the form actually found in the Book of Deer, according to the article, is Muredig. Thus, Máel Coluim(b) mac Muiredaig would be a normalized 11th century form, and the same name in the orthography of the notes to the Book of Deer would be Malcoluim mac Muredig (except that mac would probably be abbreviated to mc).

Device Commentary

Canute – Clear

Ohio – (see name commentary)

Ary - Typo: 'saltire'. What lovely arms! I found no conflicts.

Talan - That should be saltire.

Name changed to Malcoluim mac Muredig (per client’s wishes after I contacted him with three possible changes) and passed to Laurel.

Device passed to Laurel with the spelling of ‘saltire’ corrected.



4) Deenys Fitz Alan (M) New Name and Device -- Erminois, three wolves rampant reguardent gules

[Deenys] -- "The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names," 3rd Ed., Withycombe, p 81 [Dennis] 15th century

[Fitz Alan] -- "Oxford: A Dictionary of English Surnames," Revised Ed. p. 7 c. [Fitz Alan], 1416, [Allan.]

Client cares for England, 1461

Name Commentary

Talan - The correct citation is to Reaney & Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Allan, which offers John Fitz Alan 1416; there is no ‘Oxford’ in the title.

Device Commentary

Canute - The wolves could be a bit larger. Clear

Ohio - Veddy Niiice........ Can we get an Amen?

Ary - Lovely arms! I found no conflicts.

Talan - That should be reguardant (or regardant).

Name and Device passed to Laurel with the corrected spelling of regardant.

{5) Matheus MacEoin (M) Device Resubmission -- Per saltire argent and sable, a cross crosslet Or}
(Name reg'd Mar. '04)

Quarterly sable and argent semé-de-lys sable, in bend two cross crosslets Or was returned by Rouge Scarpe, Nov '03.

(Esct. Note: I looked in all of '03's ILOAR and I couldn't find the reason for it's return. I checked with Ary and she think the reason for its return was a violation of Rule XI.3.b marshalling.)

RS Note: His original submission, Quarterly sable and argent seme-de-lys sable, in bend two cross crosslets Or, was returned for marshalling November 2003. 


Canute - The cross should be larger.

Petros Monomachos - November of 1998 (via Drachenwald): Per saltire argent and sable, a cross doubly pommeled gules.

[a cross doubly pommeled elongated palewise vs a cross moline] [There is] nothing for the difference between the two crosses. (Petros Monomachos, 2/97 p. 22) Precedents - Jaelle, under Cross

CD type and tincture of cross

Ivan Geronovich - October of 1996 (via An Tir): (Fieldless) A cross of four ermine spots conjoined Or.

Ghislaine d'Auxerre - March of 2000 (via Caid): (Fieldless) A cross potent Or.

Gwyntarian, March of - August of 1984 (via the Middle): (Fieldless) A cross quadrate parted and fretted Or.

Alys de Wilton - April of 1992 (via Caid): (Fieldless) An equal-armed Celtic cross Or.

Clarissa Elana de Perrenoud - June of 1981 (via Atlantia): (Fieldless) Four mascles conjoined in cross, pommetty at all joints, Or.

Allyn Samildanach - August of 1979 (via the West): (Tinctureless) A cross of Samildanach.

Jerusalem - December of 1994 (via Laurel): Argent, a cross potent between four crosses couped Or.

Toulouse, Counts of - December of 1994 (via Laurel): Gules, a cross of Toulouse Or.

Ian Bruce MacRae - January of 1983 (via Caid): Gyronny azure and gules, a key cross Or.

Mary the Melodious Lady of Flanders - July of 1971: Gyronny ermine and vert, a crux ansata Or.

Heinrich von Stuttgart - August of 2003 (via the Middle): Per bend azure and checky Or and azure, a cross of four lozenges Or.

Edmund Cavendish - August of 1998 (via Meridies): Per bend azure and gules, a cross formy Or.

Cáemell NicEntaggart - September of 1995 (via Meridies): Per bend sinister azure and Or maily azure, a cross of Lorraine Or.

Fëamîr Bek - May of 1996 (via Atenveldt): Per fess sable and gyronny from the fess point argent and vert, a cross alisée fitchy Or.

Meave de Clare - February of 2000 (via the Middle): Per pale gules and vert, a Maltese cross Or.

Eoin MacLaren - November of 1993 (via the West): Per saltire ermine and purpure, an equal-armed Celtic cross flory Or.

Calontir, Kingdom of - April of 1984 (via Calontir): Purpure, a cross of Calatrava Or.

Richard of Alsace - December of 1975: Vair, a Latin cross fleury Or.

Clarissa Elana de Perrenoud - June of 1981 (via Atlantia): Vert, four mascles conjoined in cross, pommetty at all joints, Or.

CDs fields, CDs types of crosses

Launcelot de Westwood - September of 1973: Azure, a cross botonny fitchy Or.

Single CD for field.

Return for conflict

Ohio - Stylistically, the cross ought to be much larger. However, a quick check for conflict indicated one with "Launcelot de Westwood - September of 1973:Azure, a cross botonny fitchy Or", according to the table at Single CD for field.
Recommend return for conflict and advice to redraw.

M&A - Conflicts with Launcelot de Westwood (registered in September of 1973): Azure, a cross botonny fitchy Or. There is one CD for the field, but no CD for either type of cross or fitching. From the Precedents of Francoise la Flamme:

"There is not a CD between a cross crosslet fitchy and a cross bottony" (LoAR December 1999).

Because crosses bottony and crosses crosslet were not separate charges in period, and because crosses and crosses fitchy were not separate charges in period, RfS X.4.e gives no type difference between a cross bottony and a cross crosslet fitchy. It is important to recall that the cross bottony and the cross crosslet are both used to represent the same charge throughout our period's heraldry. The bottony form is found predominantly in earlier artwork, and the crosslet form predominantly in later artwork. Good examples of this evolution can be seen in the Beauchamp arms, Gules, a fess between six crosses crosslet Or. It is also important to recall that there is a fair amount of evidence showing that the fitching of crosses in period heraldry may be done as artist's license, particularly when the crosses are in a group of strewn ("semy") charges. [Sean of the South, 08/02, R-Atenveldt]

Ary - This may conflict with Ghislaine d'Auxerre (reg. 03/2000 via CAid), "(Fieldless) A cross potent Or." There is one CD for fieldlessness. I don't know if there is a CD between a cross potent and a cross crosslet; the visual difference is too little, in my opinion, for there to be one, but I do not know how they were treated in period and so cannot say for sure..

Talan - > (Esct. Note: [snip]… marshalling.)

Seems likely, as it definitely does violate the rule.

Return for conflict

6) Wilhelm von Wolfsburg (M) -- Device Resubmission -- Sable, a trident Or between {two} flaunches argent
(Name reg'd Mar '03)

This device was returned by Laurel Dec. '03 to be redrawn. According to Laurel: "Per the LoAR of September 2001, Please advise the submitter to draw the flaunches issuing from the top corners of the shield rather than from the chief. ... Please advise the submitter that the flaunches must be drawn from the top corners of the shield in order to be registered."


Canute - Kolozsvári Arpád - March of 1997 (via the East): Sable, a trident between two natural seahorses respectant Or.

CDs type and tincture of secondaries Clear

Ohio -  Resubmission seems to have addressed the earlier issue. Recommend pass.

Ary - This resubmission definitely fixes the previous problem. The arms appear to still be conflict free.

Talan - Flaunches always come in pairs, so the correct blazon is Sable, a trident or between flaunches argent.

And this time he's done it right.

Passed to Laurel

7) Yzabč de Rodez (F) New Name and Device-- Azure, in bend three fleurs de lys argent

(Esct. Note: Caitriona Mac Dhonnachaidh emailed me the following summary and asked if I would use it.)

[Yzabč ] -- Names found in Commercial Documents from Bordeaux, 1470-1520
(by Aryanhwy merch Catmael/ Sara L. Friedemann, with assistance from Talan Gwynek (Brian M. Scott)

Page 1 of 58 Women French Yzabe’ is a variation on Isabel (Yzabe’ Bertaud)

[De Rodez]--
The pedigree of Hugues I de Rodez (b. about 1090 d. about 1159) Child: Hugues II de Rodez Bernard d’Armagnac (given name Bernard VI) (b. about 1270 d about 1319) Wife: Cecile de Rodez (page 9 of 27)

The pages sites French nobility which were known as patrons of troubadours, specifically Henry I, count of Rodez; Hugh IV, Count of Rodez 1222-1274; Henry II, Count of Rodez 1274-1302

Client wishes name to be authentic for later period (14th to 16th century) France. She does not consent to major changes. However, changes to the spelling of de Rodez are just fine.

Name Commentary

Ohio - We're satisfied with the name documentation, and don't want Ary to beat us up at any rate, since it's her sourcework cited.

Ary - The name is found in my article as <Yzab{e'}>, with an acute accent, not a grave.

Talan - The name actually found in the cited source is Yzabé, with an acute accent, not Yzabč, with a grave accent. It is very likely that the accent is an editorial addition in any case, since this usage is hardly found until after 1520.

The place-name occurs as Rodeis ca.1260 (Dauzat & Rostaing s.n. Rodez). It would not surprise me at all if Rodez were found by the 16th century, but I have no evidence bearing on the matter. However, it's not clear that the place-name gave rise to a hereditary surname; if it did, the surname apparently wasn't very common, as Dauzat has no such entry.

Device Commentary

Canute - Jean Baptiste Ravenel - July of 2003 (via Atlantia): Per fess embattled azure and argent, in chief three fleurs-de-lys argent.

Single CD for field. No CD for arrangement because of the registered device's forced arrangement.

Return for conflict

Ohio - Veddy Niiice.... Simple and elegant and free of any conflict we could find based on number and arrangements of the Fleurs-de-lys.  Recommend pass.

M&A - This should be clear of the device of Jean Baptiste Ravenel (registered in July of 2003 via Atlantia): Per fess embattled azure and argent, in chief three fleurs-de-lys argent.

There is one CD for the field. There is a second CD for the change in arrangement of the fleurs, from "in fess" to "in bend". Although the fleurs are forced to chief in Jean Baptiste's device, the default arrangement is then "in fess." The forced move would not produce an "in bend" arrangement.

From the Precedents of Francoise la Flamme: [in chief three lozenges] The original blazon read, in latter part, ... and in chief three lozenges in fess Or. Three items in chief will also be in fess by default. We do find armory in the SCA with three items in chief, arranged one and two, but this arrangement should always be blazoned. [John de Lochabre, 12/01, A-Atlantia]

Ary - This should be clear of Alienor Beatrice Lucrezia (reg. 03/ 1997 via An Tir), "Azure, four fleurs-de-lys in cross bases to center argent," with one CD for the number of fleurs, and another for their orientation. I found no conflicts.

Name passed to Laurel. Note to Ary and Talan – on the name form it is spelled Yzabe’ (with the apostrophe following the e) which is how it is being sent to Laurel.

Device passed to Laurel. I do not believe there is a conflict.


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