MARCH 1999

Greetings unto all who read these words from Lord Alan Fairfax, Rouge Scarpe Herald,

This is the Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon's January 1999 letter. Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended; general comments or replies to commentary are also placed in braces.

I would like to thank Master John ap Wynne, Mistress Elena de Vexin, Lord Eirik Banna, Lady Mhorag inghean Dhuibhghiolla, Lord Andrew Maklaurene, Master Talan Gwynek, Lady Ælfreda æt Æthelwealda, Lord Mikhail of Lubelska, Lord Anders Olafsson, Lady Aryanhwy merch Catmael for their commentary this month.

This month's letter includes a large number of "lost sheep" as well as two pended items and two administrative returns.

FORCED CHANGES: Item #3 brings up the question of "forced moves." A forced move is a change in the arrangement or position of the charge that is required to avoid bad contrast. Because it is required by the nature of the arms, it does not count as a CD. For example, take the arms Per fess gules and argent, a mullet argent and Per fess argent and gules, in base a mullet argent. It looks like there are 2 CDs between these--one for reversing the tinctures of the field and one for moving the mullet from chief to base. However, after you reverse the tinctures, you are forced to move the mullet--you can't have an argent mullet on an argent field! Thus the move to base is a "forced move" and doesn't count for a CD, and so these two devices would conflict.

1) Alan Fairfax--New Name Change and Device Change Resubmission

Bendy sinister Or and gules, a canton sable.

The client's current name, Alan Fairfax Aluricson, was registered in 12/91. His previous device submission, identical to this one, was returned by Laurel in 2/99 for administrative reasons. Since the elements of the name are already registered to the client, they can be registered under the "grandfather clause" of RfS. If these arms pass, the client wishes to release his current arms, Paly Or and vert, an ox of St. Luke rampant sable, haloed argent.

2) Alan Fairfax--Augmentation of Arms Resubmssion

Bendy sinister Or and gules, on a canton sable for augmentation an annulet Or.

The client received this augmentation on July 10, A.S. XXVIII.

3) Berowulf fon Haholtesheime--New Name and Device

Per saltire argent and gules, two axes argent.

Submitted as Berowulf von Haholtesheim. The client asked for an 8th or 9th century East Franconian name (East Franconian was a dialect of Old High German). The clients documents Berowelf from Wendehorst, Würzburg: Geschichte in Bilddokumente, 123, which says that a Berowelf was the 3rd bishop of Würzburg from 768/9-800.

Berowelf is probably the same name as Berewelpus, dated to the 10th century in Morlet, I:52b. Müller, Studien zu den Theriophoren Personennamen der Germanen, 224, lists variants including Berowelp and Perawelf. This suggests that is also reasonable, especially since Robinson, Old English and its Closest Relatives, 229, says that the East Franconian dialect did not exhibit an initial B to P shift.

Robinson, 229, also says that fon is the standard Old High German form of modern von, and so we have modified the preposition. Haholtesheim is documented from a letter sent on 19 April 788 which is translated and quoted in Gatscher, 1200 Jahre Hesslar. It is likely that Haholtesheim is the actual medieval spelling because the author lists a number of place-names and then includes their modern equivalents as parenthetical notes--the modern form of Haholtesheim is Halsheim. We have put Haholtseheim into the dative case.

Some commenters identified a potential conflict with Richard of Walterma, Quarterly Or and sable, in bend sinister two double-bitted axes argent, on the grounds that the change in position of the axes is forced.

If we rule that the change in position is not a CD, we create a "one-way conflict." Richard's arms do not conflict with Berowelf's--there is 1 CD for the change in field, and 1 CD for the unforced change in position to in bend sinister. Given this, I do not see how we can justify calling a conflict in reverse.

Current Laurel precedent would call for a return in this case. On the 7/91 LoAR, Da'ud called a conflict between Per bend sinister indented argent and sable, in dexter chief a skunk proper and Azure, a skunk proper, saying, "There is one CVD for the change to the field but nothing for the placement on the field since that is forced by the tincture change." (s.n. William Fidgett) However, the broader principles of the RfS argue against a return. RfS I.3.a reads, "Someone may not claim to be another, either directly by using a name or armory that is identical to another's, or by unmistakably claiming close relationship to an individual who is in fact unrelated." Since, by our rules, Richard's arms do not make a claim to relationship with Berowelf, there is no justification for saying that Berowelf's arms make an unmistakable claim to relationship with Richard. Thus, it is my opinion that these arms should be registered.

4) Clare Hele--New Device

Azure, on a bend ermine between two dolphins haurient argent, a vine vert.

The client's name was registered in 1/95. Her device should have been registered at the same time. In the unlikely event that this device conflicts with a submission registered after 1/95, we request that this be treated as a hardship case.

5) Clare Hele--New Badge

(Fieldless) A dolphin haurient argent maintaining a vine vert.

This badge should have been registered in 1/95. In the event that it conflicts with a submission registered after 1/95, we request that this be treated as a hardship case.

6) Clarel the Innocent--New Name {and Device

Per bend sinister azure and purpure, a dragon dormant on the line of division.

This name and device were pended in 1/99.} Clarel is dated to 1219 in Talan Gwynek, Feminine Given Names in DES, http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyAG.html. Innocent is modern English; the submitter has indicated that she would be interested in a Middle English equivalent.

{The device was pended for investigation of the dragon on a line of division. I did not find a period example of a charge drawn in this way, but I still think there is probably one out there. However, I am returning this device because the other elements of the design are basically modern. Field divisions of azure and purpure are allowed by the RfS, but are very rare in period. Similarly, the position dormant is also very rare in period. The chance that all three of these design features would show up in a single period coat of arms is astronomically small, and so I'm returning this design. However, I would be happy to help the client try to find a charge on the line of divison.}

7) Edrich Moorshead--New Name and Device

Per pale embattled argent and vert semy of cinquefoils argent, in dexter a frog salient vert.

Edrich {which was typoed on the Escutcheon letter}is dated to 1275 in Reaney. Moorshead is a header in Reaney; he cites Murside, meaning "dweller by the marsh," to 1260. We have no evidence that Moorshead is a period name, but the client allows changes and so we have sent his name forward. {If Escutcheon wants to go through the trouble to write up name forms, that's his prerogative--but by doing so he's definitely doing the client a favor!}

The large emblazon of the device is much clearer than the small one. On it there are three embattlements in the line of division, rather than two, and the frog is as salient as a frog is going to get. I should note that one of the cinquefoils in the large emblazon has only four lobes--I sincerely hope, for the sake of both the College and the client, that this is not seen as a reason for return.

8) Frederic of Lub Shiochail--New Name and {Device

Per chevron gules and azure fimbriated, two seahorses erect maintaining quills and a castle argent.}

A period example of the spelling Frederic is found in Bardsley, s.n. Carvill. {NOTE: Bardsley is not always a reliable source--read what it says carefully and don't use it unless you have to!} Lub Shiochail is the name of an SCA group registered 5/88.

{A pile comes from the top of the shield and points down; what we have here is a perfect example of a medieval per chevron field division. Unfortunately field divisions can't be fimbriated.

I am guessing that the fimbriation was included solely for the purpose of avoiding "color-on-color" heraldry. Thus I'm going to make an exception and pend (rather than return) this device to see if the client wants the fimbriation removed.

This is not a precedent--I will still return devices that may need to be redrawn. However, since it will only take two minutes with a blue marker and white-out to alter this device, I can make an exception this time.}

9) Gleann Iaruinn, Canton of--Group Name Appeal

This submission was returned by Rouge Scarpe on 11/98 for lack of documentation. The group has decided to appeal that return.

For documentation the group has provided a letter from Master John ap Wynne, a consultant to the Midrealm College of Heralds on Gaelic names. He states, "I don't understand why someone felt that this name wouldn't be 'consistent with period naming practices' unless the person simply couldn't find such a place on a period map. The Scots and Irish often used root words and descriptive qualifiers for familiar places. Iron was a known metal in both Ireland and Scotland, certainly after 650 AD. And 'Gleann' is a very common root."

We were unable to find clear documentation that metals were used in Irish place-names. We have been told through correspondence with other Gaelic experts that support for this construction can be found in Hogan, Onomasticon Goedelicum: Locorum et Tribuum Hiberniae et Scotiae, although they were not able to provide citations from memory.

Normally we would hold this name until we had looked at the documentation. However, this group is something of a special case. They need a name in order to be recognized as a full status group, and this is their third attempt. Also, they were misinformed about the necessary documentation, and were told that they had provided adequate support for their name on the first two occasions. In addition, one of their submissions was delayed. Thus, I do not want to slow this submission down any further. I will track down Hogan and send the supporting documentation in commentary, so that their name can be registered as quickly as possible.

{10) Iohannes of Glenfiddan--New Name and Device

Paly wavy azure and sable, on a pall Or three crosses fitchy gules.

The client asked for his name to be corrected for the Scottish/English border, circa 1300. Iohannes, the standard Latin form of John, is dated between 1230-1247 in "Given Names in 13th-Century England," ( http://www.panix.com/~mittle/names/talan/eng13. It is not likely that a Scotsman would have been called Iohannes in daily life--rather, he would have been called John (or a variant) and referred to as Iohannes only in records kept in Latin. These records would also have used the Latin de instead of the English of.

Glenfiddan is documented from a "fictional work by Diana Gaboldon…set in 1733 AD." Glen is a fairly common element in Scots placenames, and derives from the Gaelic gleann. We were able to find no evidence that Glenfiddan was a real place, and were not able to come up with a plausible source for it. However, Darton, Dictionary of Scottish Place Names, 137, has Glenfinnan as the Scots form of Gleann Fhiohaig, which dates to the 14th century.

If a place called Glenfinnan could plausibly be found in the southern part of Scotland, then Iohannes de Glenfinnan is a plausible Latin form of a Scots name from the client's desired period. The Scots form would be John of Glenfinnan. We will pend this name while we contact the client, and send Iohannes de Glenfinnan to Laurel if we don't hear from him.

We must return the device for poor contrast. According to RfS VIII.2.b.iv, "elements evenly divided into multiple parts of two different tinctures must have good contrast between their parts." In practice, this means that any division with more than four pieces must use a metal and a color. Also, a cross fitchy is drawn so that the bottom arm is triangular, not arrow-shaped. I couldn't find a name for the cross as drawn here, so the arms would get returned for this as well.}

11) Kyra neyn Gilbride--Name Resubmission

The client's original name, Zoe ni Gilbride, was returned by Rouge Scarpe in 12/97 for combining incompatible languages. This name was submitted as Kyra ni Gilbride. Kyra is the client's mundane name. Gilbride is dated to 1178-98 in Black, 299; it is a Scots form of the Gaelic Giolla Brígde. {The client says that ni is Gaelic for "daughter of," and this is close--it is a late-period Irish contraction of inghean uí "daughter of Ó…" The Gaelic word for "daughter of" is simply inghean, originally pronounced \IN-yen\.

In Scotland in the late 15th century, the pronunciation of inghean changed to \NE-en\. After this time, neyn was used as a Scots form of inghean.

Since the client's name is intended to be Scottish, and since neyn is the possible form of inghean closest to ni, we have chosen to use neyn to mean "daughter of."

12) Leolin Gofar--New Name and Device

Per pale azure and vert, a lion rampant Or and in canton a Latin cross argent.

{This name was pended on the 1/99 LoAR.} Leolin is dated to the 13th century as an Anglicization of the Welsh Llewelyn by Withycombe, s.n. Llewelyn. Gofar is dated to 1223 in Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Gover. The client originally said that his name had to mean "lion," but indicated that he would like to use Leolin even though it probably did not mean "lion" in period.

{13) Lia de la Fountaine--New Device

Quarterly tenne and vert, two gingko leaves and two horse-chestnut leaves, stems to center, vert.

This device must be returned for several reasons. First of all, it is technically marshaled armory since the first and fourth quarters have a different charge than the second and third quarters. Second, it falls afoul of the "sword-and-dagger rule," which prohibits the use of two nearly identical charges in one design. Third, the tinctures described as gules and Or are not--the gules is a dark orange (close to the rare modern tincture tenne), and the leaves are an olive green color that is neither Or nor vert.}

14) Matthias von Würzburg--New Device

Azure, a bear and on a chief argent, three seeblatten azure.

{This device is a "lost sheep."} The client dates Mathias (with one t) to the 15th century from Talan Gwynek, "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia." (http://www.panix.com/~mittle/ names/talan/bahlow) Würzburg is dated to 689 in "Würzburg: History, points of interest, art and cultural and events - an overview:" ( http://www.98asg.wuerzburg.army.mil/hsg/wrztour.htm)

{15) Robert Da Hwyll--New Name and Device

Argent, a stag trippant sable and a chief embattled vert.

The client claims Robert through the mundane name allowance, but it is also dated to the 14th century in Morgan & Morgan, s.n. Robert.

The client intends his byname to mean "good-humored, making women laugh." Hwyl (not Hwyll--l and ll are different letters in Welsh) means "humor" in the sense of "mood," and da means "good." The adjective normally follows the noun in Welsh, so we get Hwyl Da as word that possible means "in a good mood" or "cheerful."

Even with these grammatical changes, it's not at all clear that Hwyl Da is a plausible Welsh byname. The client himself referred to the construction as a "bastardization," and I am not familiar with any Welsh bynames constructed by phrases. Since the client was clearly working with limited resources, and since he is interested in an authentic name, I am going to return this submission and refer him to more useful sources for information on Welsh names.

The must be returned with the name, but there are no problems with it--in fact, it received a number of compliments from commenters. It does not conflict with Edward Longtooth, Argent, a stag atgaze to sinister sable and a chief embattled azure. There is 1 CD for the change of tincture to the chief, and 1 CD for reversing the direction of the stag.}

16) Sara de Mowbray--New Name

Sara is dated to 1379 in Withycombe, 264. The client dates Mowbray to the 11th century from a variety of sources, all of which appear to have modernized the forms of the name. However, a period example of the spelling Mowbray appears in Smalpece's Roll in Brault, The Rolls of Arms of Edward III. This roll of arms is dated from 1298-1306. Thus, although the more common period form is Moubray, Mowbray was also used.

{17) Ulrich von Landstuhl--New Device

Per chevron vert and azure, a wolf rampant maintaining a halberd within a bordure argent.

This device was withdrawn at the request of the submitter.}

18) Willelm le Pied--New Name and Device

Per bend sinister sable and azure, a footprint argent.

Willelm is described as a common form of William in an incomplete citation from the Academy of S. Gabriel. Clarke, Onomastics, notes the byname Fot, meaning "foot," from the London Lay Subsidy Roll of 1292. According to Reaney, Origin of English Surnames, 241, Pie is the Anglo-French word for "foot." Since Anglo-French words were commonly used in English names, le Pie is a completely reasonable English byname. We were not able to determine whether Pied is a period form. The client allows only major changes, but this would be enough to allow for a change from Willelm le Pied to Willelm le Pie, should that be necessary.

19) Yehudit bat Rina--Name and Device Resubmission

Per bend sininster gules and sable, six pairs of wheatstalks crossed in saltire Or.

{The client's name was on the 6/94 IloI but was never acted upon. The device was returned in 11/98 for lack of a name.} Yehudit is a transliteration of the Hebrew name that was brought into English as Judith. Bat is Hebrew for "daughter of." Rina is a transliteration of a Hebrew name which was used in Europe; it is dated to 1186 in Seror, Les Noms de Juifs de France au Moyen Age, where it is found as Reine and Rena.

Done by my hand, on the eleventh day of March, anno societatis xxxiii, being the feast of saint Constantine of Cornwall.

Alan Fairfax, Rouge Scarpe

Alan Terlep
5401 S. Cornell
Chicago, IL 60615
(773) 324-1366 (after 11am ET)


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