Greetings unto all who read these words from Lord Alan Fairfax, Rouge Scarpe Herald,

This is the Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon's July 1999 letter. Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended; general comments or replies to commentary are also placed in braces.

I would like to thank Master Dmitrii Volkovich and Tiarna Rory mac Feidhlimidh, who have returned to commenting after long absences (Pennsic always seems to inspire people to get back in the swing of things!) Thanks too to Master John ap Wynne, Lord Thorvald Redhair, Lord Percival ap Gwylim Trefynwy, Master Dmitrii Volkovich, Lady AElfreda aet AEthelwealda, Lord Mikhail of Lubelska, Lady Aryanhwy merch Catmael, and Lord Eirik Banna for the comments this month.

This month's letter includes 11 items from the kingdom.

1) Anne Geoffreys of Warwick-New Name and Device

Per bend sinister azure and gules semy of pheons Or, in dexter chief a natural tiger rampant contourney argent striped sable maintaining between both paws for augmentation an annulet Or.

Anne is dated to the beginning to the 13th century in Withycombe, 25. Geffreys and Geoffray are dated to the end of the 13th century in Reaney & Wilson, 253. Geoffreys can be derived from these two forms. Warwick is a header spelling in Mills, 347.

The client was granted an augmentation in the Middle Kingdom on 7/17/93.

2) Bathory Anastasia-New Name and Device

Sable, in chief a decrescent and in base two bars wavy Or.

Anastasia is found in Speer, "Hungarian Feminine Names." (http://www.geocities.com/Athens/ 1336/magfem.html). Bathory is found in Kálmán, 68. The client wants her name to be authentic for 15th or 16th-century Hungary.

{3) Caradoc Llew Du ap Morgan-New Badge

(Fieldless) A lion's head erased sable, wearing a cap of maintenance vert, reversed argent.

This bage conflicts with Anebairn MacPharlaine of Arrochar (5/80), "Per pale azure and argent, a lion's head erased sable." There is 1 CD for fieldlessness, and none for the cap of maintenance.

The cap of maintenance is reserved to members of the Order of the Pelican; Master Caradoc became a member of the Order on 8/17/85. Reversed is a standard term to describe the tincture of the lining of a cap of maintenance.}

4) Cassandra de Layre-New Name

{Listed on the ILoI as Cassandra D'Leyer.} The submission form is confusing, but it appears that the client intended to submit Cassandra de L'Eyer. She documents Cassandra to pre-classical Greece from the Iliad. It is also dated in English to 1207 in Withycombe. The client documents L'Eyer by starting with an invented Latin place-name, Aere Perennium, which she translates as "longer-lasting than bronze." She then says that L'Eyer could be a later French corruption of this Latin name.

The client provided no documentation to support these constructions, and I couldn't find any evidence that Aere Perennium could be a Roman place-name. However, Dauzat & Rostaing, s.n. Laire and Leyr, has a large number of similar names, including Layre, dated to 1302. The client indicated that she wanted her name to be authentic for French from the 14th-16th centuries, and so we have modified the place-name to a form that we can document. Cassandra de Layre should be registerable, and if someone with more knowledge of Latin place-names can provide documentation for the original name, so much the better.

5) Charles of Whithorse-New Name and Device

Quarterly sable and gules, two horses combatant argent.

Charles is the client's mundane name. Whithorse is documented from a map of 14th-century Britain. The map dates from between 1603 and 1688, so we don't have a period citation for the spelling Whithorse. Ekwall, 514, dates the form Whithors to 1273. This is sufficiently close that we are comfortable sending on the name as submitted.

6) Chrestiénne la Croniere-New Name and Device

Or, a horse rampant, on a chief azure a serpent glissant Or between two bezants.

Chrestiénne is dated to 1292 from Colm Dubh. The client constructed Croniere as the feminine form of Cronier, which is found in Dauzat. The client wants an authentic French name.

{7) Darkstone, College of-Branch Name Resubmission and New Group Device

Per fess indented gules and sable, a laurel wreath and in chief a roundel Or.

The only documentation the clients have provided for this name is a page from By Oak, Ash, and Thorn: Modern Celtic Shamanism, which says that "dorcha" is the Gaelic word for "dark." The submission form says that the do not want to use this Gaelic word in their name. They also show that they have been included on the Known World map since 1995-I'm not sure what this is supposed to demonstrate, since their name was returned in 1994.

Since the clients have been using this name for so long, we made an attempt to find documentation for it. Ekwall, 446, has a number of names including the element Stone, but we couldn't find any evidence that Dark- would be a plausible element in a placename. Without some support for Dark, we must return the group's name. We will work with them to develop a registerable name.

There are no obvious obstacles to registering the device, but we must return it with the name.}

8) Donal Bane of Blakmers-New Name and Device

Argent, a falcon displayed vert perched upon a sinister cubit arm fesswise, fist clenched and on a chief sable three feathers bendwise sinister Or.

The client included a letter from Talan Gwynek, which includes multiple citations from Black as documentation. On pg. xlii, Black has the name Patrick McDonill, which is an English form of the Gaelic patronymic mac Domhnuill. This patronymic is derived from the given name Domhnall. Since a in Gaelic is often represented by a in English, Donal is a plausible English form of Domhnall. Bane, the second element, is dated to 1548 on page 499, s.n. Macgilleglas. Blackmers is constructed from the elements Blak-, dated to 1394 on page 79, s.n. Blackburn, and -mers, which is a probable Scots form of "marsh." The form Merse is dated to 1560 in Johnston, s.n. Merse.

9) Edmund Cornwaleis-New Name {and Device

Gules, on a bend sinister argent three falcons, wings addorsed, maintaining double-headed axes sable.}

Submitted as Edmund Cornwallis. The client documents Edmund by citing St. Edmund, King of East Anglia (d. 870) and Edmund I of England (d. c. 922), and Cornwallis in Matthews, English Surnames, 299. They can also be found as headers in Withycombe and Reaney, respectively.

The client said that he wanted his name to be authentic for 14th-century England. Based on the citations in Reaney and the examples in Reaney, Origins of English Surnames, 21, we have proposed this form as the one that is closest to his original submission and also appropriate for the 14th century.

{Unfortunately, the device conflicts with the arms of Lebanon, Gules, on a bend sinister argent a cedar tree palewise proper. There is only 1 CD for a complete change to the tertiary charges. (Tertiary charges-charges entirely on top of other charges-can never count for more than 1 CD).}

{10) Elaine de Beauchamp-New Device

Azure, on a plate argent a swan rising azure.

The client's name was registered in 7/97. Her submission really is a device and not a badge. Unfortunately, we must return it for conflict with Rhithyn yr Gwlad yr Hav, Azure, a plate charged with a cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity sable. There is only 1 CD for a complete change to the tertiary charges.}

11) Eliška of Plžen-New Name

The client documents Eliška from Sayer, Courts of Bohemia, 32, who says that a woman named Eliška was the mother of Emperor Charles IV, who was born in 1316. We found documentation for Plžen from "Plzen Historical Underground" (http://www.zcu.cz/plzen/underground /underground.html), which says that the city was established in 1295. {These are probably modern forms, but given the limited information that we have on Czech names, they're sufficient.}

[Note: If you cannot read the characters in this name, change your browser's character set to Central European ISO-8859-2]

{12) Francesca di Simoneti-New Name and Device

Azure semy of roses Or, a cat sejant argent.

The name is documented from Scott, "14th Century Venetian Personal Names," which is included in the proceedings from the 1996 KWHS. We assume that the documentation is good, but since no photocopies were included, we must pend this name while we contact the client. If we receive the documentation, we can send it to Laurel.

This device probably does not conflict with Jordre Pargon of Windhover's Reach, Azure, a snow leopard sejant argent, spotted sable. There is 1 CD for the addition of the roses, and probably also a difference for the removal of the spots. We will send the device forward with the name.}

13) Geoffrey of Warwick-New Name and Device

Per bend sable and Or, three crosses bottony in bend and three pheons inverted in bend counterchanged.

Geoffrey is in Withycombe, 128. Warwick is a header in Mills and Ekwall, who both date the form Warwic to 1086.

{14) Grifon L'Estrange-New Name and Device

Vert, a male griffon's head contourney erased and on a chief vert three fleurs-de-lys vert.

Submitted as Grifon the Stranger. Grifon is found in the 1292 Census of Paris. Stranger is not documented, and we have substituted the documentable French form, which is described as "archaic" in Dauzat. We are pending the name to contact the client about this change.

The male griffon is covered with spikes, and so a male griffon's head is different from a standard, non-spiked griffon's head.}

15) Katherine mac Ewen-Name {and Device} Resubmission

{Purpure, a chevron between three suns Or.}

{The client's original name, Cera mac Ewen, and her device, Purpure, a chevron between two suns and an annulet surmounted by three crescents Or, were returned by Rouge Scarpe in 6/98.} Katherine is a header spelling in Withycombe, 186. This form is not dated there, but it is dated to 1316 in Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Curzon. The patronymic is dated to 1174.

Normally mac would be used only with a man's name. However, in this case the name could be a Gaelic patronymic that became a family name among a Scots-speaking family in late-period Scotland. Given that the client is using an English given name, this is not totally implausible.

{Unfortunately, this device conflicts with Alexios Macedon, Per pale azure and gules, a chevron between three suns Or. There is only 1 CD for the field. The good news is that I know Alexios and will attempt to help the lady get permission to conflict. Still, we must return the device at this time.}

16) Maynard Wolven-New Name and Device

Gules, a wolf's head caboshed between flaunches Or each charged with a goutte de sang.

The client documents Maynard from Withycombe, 100. He documents Wolven from Reaney, 2nd ed., s.n. Woolven. We were unable to find this form in the current edition, but it seems to be a reasonable variant. If it is not, the client allows changes and so the name can be registered as Woolven.

{Charged flaunches are allowed in SCA heraldry. There is a prohibition against surmounting flaunches, but this means that flaunches cannot be covered by an overall charge. Gules, two flaunches Or, overall a wolf's head caboshed argent would be forbidden, but this design is not.}

17) Middle Kingdom for Captaincy-General of Guatemala-Release of Order Name

Since the purpose of this title is not clear-and, in any case, Trimaris has a solid claim to Guatemala-the Kingdom is releasing this title.

18) Middle Kingdom for Dragon Surrogate Herald-Release of Heraldic Title

We recently discovered, to our horror, that a number of previously unknown heraldic titles were registered to the Middle Kingdom. We are releasing these titles with the hope that they will never be seen again.

19) Middle Kingdom for Dragon's Flight, Award of the-Association of Badge with Order

(Fieldless) A pheon inverted within and conjoined to an annulet Or.

This badge was registered in February 1998, and should be associated with the Award of the Dragon's Flight.

20) Middle Kingdom for Falcon Herald-Release of Heraldic Title

21) Middle Kingdom for Mich-Ont Herald-Release of Heraldic Title

22) Middle Kingdom for Middle Kingdom Archers-New Household Name

This is a rather unusual case. The Midrealm has reserved the use of the badge (Fieldless) A pheon inverted within and conjoined to an annulet Or (registered 2/98) to the archers of the kingdom. We would like to indicate this in the Armorial. According to the Admnistrative Handbook, armory can only be associated with a branch, order, or household. Thus, we've submitted Middle Kingdom Archers as a household name even though it's not a household in any of the usual senses.

23) Middle Kingdom for Northshield Herald-Release of Heraldic Title

24) Middle Kingdom for Ohio-Kentucky Herald-Release of Heraldic Title

25) Middle Kingdom for Purple Fret, Award of-Change of Order Name

This is currently recorded as the Order of the Purple Fret, although it has traditionally been referred to as an award in the Midrealm.

26) Middle Kingdom for Red Company, Order of the-Association of Badge with Order

Gules, two flanged maces in saltire argent.

This badge was registered in September 1995, and should be associated with the Red Company.

27) Middle Kingdom for Sapphire, Award of the-New Order Name and Badge

(Fieldless) A gemstone azure.

Although we did not find any examples of orders named after gemstones in the mundane world, this name does fit within the accepted range of TSCA order names.

28) Middle Kingdom for Third Shield Herald-Release of Heraldic Title

{29) Njall the Wanderer of Bork-New Name and Device

Sable, a lozenge fesswise per pale gules and purpure fimbriated argent.

The client documents Njall from Ó Corrain & Maguire, 141, which has the Irish name Niall. Geirr-Bassi includes the name using the standardized Old Norse spelling Njáll. The client makes no attempt to document the Wanderer, but it is a TSCA byname. Finally, he says that he found Bork as a locative byname in Bahlow, 74 (German edition). We were unable to find this citation.

Even if the citation for Bork is correct, this name still has problems because it combines Norse (or Irish), English, and German in a rather unlikely combination. A mix of two of these languages is probably registerable, but combining all three is questionable at best.

The device doesn't follow any example of period heraldic style that I've ever seen, but it is certainly registerable.}

30) Nordskogen, Barony of-New Branch Badge

(Fieldless) A fool's cap per pall Or, gules, and vert.

The barony's name was registered in 10/82.

31) Rhys ab Idwal-New Name and Device

Per pale azure and sable, on a plate a wolf salient sable.

The client documents Rhys from Gruffudd, 83. The variant spelling ab is documented from ibid., 5. Idwal is in Jones, "Welsh Miscellany," 31.

Much to our surprise, we did not find a conflict with this design.

32) Richard Ealdwulf-New Name {and Device

Azure, a compass star throughout argent and on a chief Or three pheons inverted gules.}

Richard is the client's mundane name. Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonium, 400, dates it to 685. Ealdwulf is dated to 664 in ibid., 201. The client would like to have an authentic 8th-century Old English name. We assume that the forms in Searle have been modernized, but we don't know what the appropriate 8th-century form would be-help will be appreciated.

{We must return the device for conflict with Peregrine the Wanderer, Azure, a compass star argent and on a chief Or a feather vert. There is 1 CD for the changes to the tertiaries and no CD for making the compass star throughout.}

33) Tigernach mac Éoghain ua Áeda-Badge Resubmission

(Fieldless) A cross crosslet per pale gules and argent.

The client's name was registered 5/99. {His previous submission, (Fieldless) On a cross crosslet nowy gules, a wolf's head erased argent, appeared on the 11/98 IloI and was withdrawn by the submitter. This is a complete redesign.} This does not conflict with Caitlyn O'Duirnin, (Fieldless) A Canterbury cross per pale gules and argent. There is 1 CD for fieldlessness and 1 CD for the type of cross.

{34) Wulfgar Hlotharius von Aachen-New Badge

Per bend sinister embattled Or and sable, a unicorn's head couped argent.

The client's name was registered 1/98. Unfortunately, we must return this for conflict with Isabella d'Hiver, Azure, a unicorn's head couped argent collared gules.

There is not a conflict with Saerlaith nic Uilliam O'Ceallaigh, Per bend paly argent and azure and azure, in dexter base a unicorn's head couped argent. This is an example of a one-way conflict (see the discussion under Berowelf fon Haholtesheime on the 3/99 Midrealm LoAR and the 7/99 Laurel LoAR). Wulfgar could have put the unicorn's head in his design in dexter base, so the move to center point is not forced. However, if Wulfgar's device had been registered first, Searlaith would not get a CD for this difference. Thus, Searlaith conflicts with Wulfgar, but Wulfgar does not conflict with Searlaith. Thus the client only has one conflict to deal with.}

Done by my hand on the xxvii day of September, anno societatis xxxv, being the feast of saints Cosmas and Damian

Alan Fairfax, Rouge Scarpe

Alan Terlep
92 Ridgemont
Pontiac, MI 48340


Disclaimer: This page is not officially sanctioned by the SCA, Inc., the Middle Kingdom, or the MK College of Heralds. It is a private project of the Escutcheon Herald (Paul Wickenden of Thanet) who has based the information published here on publicly-available documentation.