Greetings unto all who read these words from Lord Alan Fairfax, Rouge Scarpe Herald,

This is the Middle Kingdom Letter of Acceptances and Returns for Escutcheon's September 1999 letter. Comments in braces {} were removed from the Letter of Intent sent to Laurel and the College of Arms. Names, devices, or badges in braces have been returned or pended; general comments or replies to commentary are also placed in braces.

Thanks to Master John ap Wynne, Lady Adeliza de Saviniaco (congratulations!), Mistress Elena de Vexin, Lord Mikhail of Lubelska, Lady Ælfreda æt Æthelwealda, Lady Gwenhwyvar Nocturnal, Lord Percival Gwylim ap Tryfanwy, Lady Aryanhwy verch Catmael, Lady Anna Mailander, Lady Bronwen Torrens, Lady Decima De Seta, Lord Nathaniel Garrett, Lady Francesca diCaro and Lord Konrad Mailander for their commentary this month. I appreciate all your work.on this letter.

1) Accolon Shadowhawk--New Device

Per bend sinister Or and sable, a hawk rising maintaining a cup counterchanged.

2) Ælfflæd æt Weþmor--New Name and Device

Azure, a fess between six crescents argent.

Submitted as Ælfflæd æt Wethmor. {The client's herald indicated that the spelling ae on the form was intended to represent the æ ligature.} The client dates Ælfflæd to 653 from Searle, 7. The client documents Wethmor as the Old English form of Wedmore, the name of a town in Somerset, from Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England. She also includes a page from Garmonsway, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. This is a modern English translation of two manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; it shows that both versions mention Wedmore in the year 878.

The th spelling in modern English usually represents the Old English letters ð or þ. Ekwall, s. n. Wedmore, dates the spellings Weþmore and Wedmore to 878--probably from the two manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Since the client asked for her name to be corrected for Anglo-Saxon between 600 and 1100, we have modified the spelling of her byname to Weþmor.

3) Aleksandra Drakonova--Device Resubmission

Argent, an owl displayed sable, on a chief vert three decrescents argent.

The client's name was submitted on the 6/99 LoI.

{4) Anna ingen ui Reachthain--New Name and Device

Per chevron gules and azure, in chief five crosses flory, two, one, and two, Or.

The client wants to have a 14th-century Irish name, and also wants to use the form mac Reachthain. The client documents Anna from Woulfe, s.n. Anna. Woulfe includes some modern forms, and there was no other evidence that Anna was used as a Gaelic name in period. The byname mac Reachthain is found in Woulfe, 401.

The term mac in Gaelic means "son of," and it is not generally appropriate for women, so the consulting herald at Pennsic changed mac to ingen ui. This is a combination of ingen, meaning "daughter of," and ua, meaning "descendant of." It is a feminine equivalent of ua.

This would be the end of the discussion if everyone in Ireland spoke Gaelic, but we also have to consider those pesky English. When English-speaking people started using inherited family names, some English-speaking people of Irish descent adopted names started using names beginning with mac as family names. Since the meaning of these family names wasn't important, both men and women used family names beginning with mac. However (and this is important), these names would appear in Anglicized spellings, not in the original Gaelic spelling. An example of this is found in the 14th century Red Book of Ormond, which includes the name Elyn McGalman (cited in Jones, Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond, http://www.panix.com/~mittle/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond.html). This suggests that if mac Reachthain were put into an English form (such as McCracken, cited in Woulfe), the resulting Anna McCracken would be a historically accurate name for a 14th-century Irish woman who spoke English. Unfortunately, we're not sure whether the client would prefer her current name or an Anglicized McCracken. Therefore, we're pending the name while we contact the client.

The device is almost certainly impossible for the 14th century, since depictions of the per chevron field division from this period generally show a very sharp angle on the line that brings the point of the chevron almost to the top of the field. I have some doubts about the arrangement of the crosses, but I'll send the device on with the name.}

{5) Anna ingen ui Reachthain--New Badge

(Fieldless) A weeping willow tree purpure.

We will have to pend this badge along with the name and device.}

6) Anu of Shelmerdine--New Name

Anu is described as a feminine Irish given name in Ó Corrain & Maguire, 22. Shelmerdine is dated to 1632 in Bardsley, 688. It is described as a corrupted form of the place-name Shermerden, and so the client has used it as a locative.

This documentation is a bit thin. We don't know that Shelmerdine was ever used as a place-name in its own right. Furthermore, it is virtually impossible that the very late-period Shelmerdine could have been used with the Irish Anu, which is probably an early-period name. Despite these issues, this does appear to be a registerable name.

{7) Brian Cullen of Ormond--New Device

Or, a chevron embattled vert between three cups gules.

We are returning this device because this name has not been registered.}

8) Brighid inghean Murcatt--New Name and Device

Per pall inverted gules, Or, and sable, two bat-winged lions combatant Or and gules and a glove palewise argent.

Brighid is found in Ó Corrain and Maguire, 36. The client constructed Murcatt, meaning "sea-cat," on the model of Murchu (found in ibid., 143), which is ultimately derived from the elements mor, meaning "sea," and chu, meaning "dog."

I have serious doubts about this construction. It is not clear that Murchu was used in period with the meaning "sea-dog." Even if it was, it is also uncertain whether catt can legitimately be substituted for chu. However, the client has indicated that she will accept the alternate patronymic Murchad, found in Ó Corrain & Maguire, 143, if Murcatt is not acceptable. So if inghean Murcatt (with Murcatt put into the genitive) is not acceptable, the alternative inghean Murcada can be substituted.

{The device bears little resemblance to medieval heraldry, but it is certainly registerable. Some question was raised about the depiction of the bat wings, but since we don't have any known examples of bat-winged lions to use for comparison, I'm inclined to let it go.}

9) Brighid ni Chearnaigh--New Badge

Vert semy of acorns Or.

10) Brigit inghean Carthaig--New Name and Device

Argent, an oak leaf vert between three decrescents gules.

Brigit is found in Ó Corrain & Maguire, 36. Carthaig is a genitive form of Carthach found in Jones, "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland," 4. The client would like her name to be authentic Irish and cares most about language.

11) Cainwen Prenrhos--Device Resubmission

Azure, three annulets interlaced, one and two, within a bordure Or.

The client's name was registered in 10/90. {Her previous device submission was returned in Atlantia in approximately 9/98.}

12) Calandra Aldobrandi--New Name

The client proposes Calandra as a feminine form of Calandro, found in Lyth, "Italian Personal Names," 108. Aldobrandi is dated to 1427 in Ferrante la Volpe, "Men's Names from Florence," 1.

13) Cassandra of the Western Green--Badge Resubmission

(Fieldless) Conjoined to and within a torse argent and vert, a sprig of honeysuckle gules slipped and leaved vert.

The client's previous submission, Argent, a sprig of honysuckle bendwise gules, slipped and leaved, within a wreath vert ribboned argent, was returned by Laurel in 4/98 for use of the ribboned wreath. The client has followed Laurel's suggestion and replaced the wreath with a torse.

14) Cecil Dupont--Name Resubmission

This name was returned by Laurel in 9/99 because the forms lacked contact information. We will provide new forms and sent the name in again.

15) Coldernhale, Shire of--New Group Name and Device

Argent, chausse, a yale rampant guardant and in chief a laurel wreath vert.

The clients provide two pieces of documentation for their name. Ekwall, s.n. Dernhall, dates Dernhale to 1275. Ibid., s.n. Norton, dates the name Coldenorthon to 1229 (the town's modern name is Cold Norton). This shows that an existing town name could have a descriptive prefix like Cold- added to differentiate it from other towns of the same name. They include an excerpt from Mills, xxiii, which says that names of this type are not uncommon in the 13th and 14th centuries.

{If this name is registered, the group will be able to carry on the tradition of Havnholde and Loch Stockenborough.}

{16) Darius Methodius--New Name and Device

Per chevron inverted Or and azure, three elephants one and two counterchanged.

Darius is not documented in the submission, but it appears in Morlet, II:39. Methodius is the name of three saints listed in Attwater. The earliest was martyred in 311; he is presumably the namesake for the other two, who lived in Byzantium in the 9th century.

This name can probably be explained as a Western European name, but it doesn't appear to be authentic for Byzantium. The one existing article on Byzantine names that covers this period ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/introduction.html) says that most family names from this period either come from places or professions, and it does not list a single patronymic in its collection of documented names. Also, most of the given names come from saints or famous Greeks--it is not at all clear that the name Darius, (probably taken from a Persian emperor who nearly conquered Athens in the 5th century BC), would be used in Byzantium.

Given all this, we're going to pend the name and contact the client for more information.

The device is definitely odd, but it is also registerable.}

17) Demetrios Kantakouzenos--New Name and Device

Per pale checky pean and Or and checky erminois and sable

Both elements of the name are documented from Chavez, "Personal Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/introduction.html). {This is different from the source listed on the forms, so Paul's confusion is understandable.} The client would like the name to be authentic, but he doesn't specify a period or place.

The artists for this device deserve extra credit.

18) Dougal of Icolmkill--Device Resubmission

Per fess argent and Or, an ogress within two dogs courant in annulo gules.

The client's previous submission, identical to this one, was returned by Laurel in 4/98 for redrawing.

{A couple issues were raised in commentary. The blazon within two dogs is a bit strange, but it's a standard SCA blazon term for a charge in the middle of charges in annulo. Second, it was suggested that this violates the ban on animals inverted because the second dog is upside-down. This does not appear to be a problem. I found two examples of devices with two animals in annulo that had been registered since this ruling was put into effect: Cristina de Asturias (5/96) and Daemon Broussard (7/98). Inverted is a heraldic term, and so not all upside-down animals are necessarily inverted.}

19) Éile ingen uí Riain--New Name and Device

Vert, two scarpes Or between a mouse statant contourny and a Celtic cross argent.

Submitted as Éile O'Ryan; the client asked for her byname to be modified to be consistent with the given name. Éile is in Ó Corrain & Maguire, 84. It is found only in legend. However, the legendary figure, Éile ingen Echach meic Luchta, had two sisters (Medb and Uaithne) whose names were used by historical people in period according to Ó Corrain & Maguire's discussions of these names. Thus Éile is more likely to be a historical name than most other names from Irish legend.

Since the client asked for correction, we have put her byname in a Gaelic form. Rían also appears in Ó Corrain & Maguire. As far as I can tell, the appropriate 12th-century form of this byname is ingen uí Riain.

20) Elisabetta da Firenze--New Name

Elisabetta is in MacPharlane, "Feminine Given Names from the Italian Renaissance." The byname da Firenze is in De Felice, Cognomi, 125. The client will not permit major changes, but would like a name authentic for 14th-century Italy.

21) Elisée du Lyonnais--Change of Badge to Device

Per fess vert and Or, a sea-lion within a bordure counterchanged.

This armory was registered to the client in 9/89. She would like to change this from a badge to a device. As she currently has no device, there is no armory to release.

22) Elsbeth Schneewolf--New Name {and Device

Sable, two wolves rampant addorsed argent.}

Elsbeth is in the English translation of Bahlow, 113. Schneewolf is a header in ibid., 501. The form Snewolf is dated to 1359.

{Unfortunately this device conflicts with a badge of Manfred Albrecht von Halsstern, (Fieldless) Two wolves rampant addorsed argent. There is 1 CD for the field.}

23) Emma de Lyons--New Badge

(Fieldless) A crescent argent.

According to current precedents, this badge conflicts with William Gregor Grant, Per chevron embattled azure and gules, in sinister chief a crescent argent. There is 1 CD for the change in field. In the 9/92 return of Ariel de Courtenay, Master Bruce as Laurel ruled that changes in position could not be counted for difference against a fielded badge.

Master Bruce did not explain the rationale for this decision either in the return or in the 9/92 cover letter. The rationale for the decision is not at all clear to me, and so I am sending this submission to the College of Arms with a request that the precedent be reviewed. Hopefully some public record of the reasoning behind it will result.

24) Erich Jäger--New Name and Device

Sable, five wolves' heads erased ululant contourny argent.

Erich is dated to 1293 in the English translation of Bahlow, 118. Jäger is a header spelling on page 273.

The arms were blazoned as an orle of five. As our commenters pointed out, this arrangement can only be worked out on some shield shapes, and so we have changed the blazon. {Some commenters also doubted that the wolves were really ululant. However, the majority of commenters didn't raise this objection and the current Laurel has tended to be merciful about drawing issues, so we are sending it on. If there is a problem in the College of Arms, we will address it in external commentary.}

25) Fína ingen Áeda--New Name and Device

Or, a triskelion and on a chief gules, three mullets of six points argent.

The client documents Fína from Ó Corrain and Maguire, s.n. Fina, and Áed from ibid., s.n. Áed. Áeda is the Irish genitive form for the 8th-9th centuries, which are part of the client's desired period. {This documentation did need to include some kind of citation. The enclosed letter listed four forms of Áed and two forms of Fína, and I wasn't sure where to find them in Ó Corrain & Maguire. I personally think that a header name is more useful than a page number in name dictionaries, unless there is a reference to only one form of the name. And, as this case shows, it is probably better to be safe than sorry.}

The large emblazon of the device is much better than the small one--the three mullets are much closer to being in a straight line, for one. The triskelion is also more identifiable, although it is still in a tight spiral. Our commenters were divided on whether this is an acceptable depiction of a triskelion or not, so we have sent it on for further commentary.

26) Gilcrist O'Phelan--New Name {and Device

Vert, three piles Or, overall a Latin cross formy sable.

Submitted as Gilcrist O'Faolain. The client documents Gilcrist from Withycombe, s.n. Christopher, who says that "Christopher has often been used to render Gaelic Gilcrist." This isn't quite accurate, since Gilcrist is actually an Anglicized form of the Gaelic Giolla Crist. However, the form Gilcrist is dated to the 14th century in Jones, Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond, ( http://www.panix.com/~mittle/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond.html).

O'Faolain, the submitted form, combines the Anglicized
O' with the Gaelic Faolain. {It is legal to combine English and Gaelic elements within a single name, but not to combine English and Gaelic in one name element.} The client said he was most concerned with sound, and so we substituted the Anglicized O'Phelan, which maintains the sound of his given name and is more consistent with the form of his given name. The fully Gaelic form of this name would be Giolla Crist ua Faolain.

{Properly blazoned, the arms are color on color and so we must return them.}

27) Guilin Frouville le Coyfer--New Name and Device

Argent, a sea-goat purpure and a chief nebuly vert.

Guillin appears in Dauzat, s.n. Guillaume. Frouville appears in ibid., s.n. Frouville. The client provided no documentation for le Coyfer, but the byname Coifer is dated to c. 1230 in Gervers, "The Textile Industry in Essex in the Late 12th and 13th Centuries," Appendix I (http://www.utoronto.ca/deeds/pubs/doc3/). The y to i shift is a common feature of Middle English and French.

28) Hildegard von der Zugspitze--New Name and Device

Per bend sinister azure and argent, two horse's heads issuant from the line of division counterchanged.

Hildegard is dated to c. 1150 in the English Bahlow, 247. The Zugspitze is said to be the highest mountain in modern Germany. The client actually wants to register the name Hildegard von Garmisch, but was not able to find a period reference to the town Garmisch.

The arms are unusual, but the consulting herald, who is familiar with German heraldry, says that there are period examples of this kind of motif. The only examples I've seen of charges like this use linden leaves, but I don't know that much about German heraldry and so I'm sending this on for further commentary. I expect that some of the experts in the College of Arms will be able to provide some supporting examples for this type of design.

29) Horsa of Schleswig--New Name and Device

Argent, a chevron inverted gules and in chief a Saxon helm, overall two spears palewise sable.

Horsa is dated to the 5th century in Searle, 301. Schleswig is found as a header in Bahlow, Deutsches Geographisches Namenwelt, 423. The client wants an authentic 7th-century Anglo-Saxon name but will not permit major changes.

{A correct blazon for this device needs to list the primary charge first, the secondary charge second, and the overall charge last. There's no way to keep this from sounding awkward, but I've done the best I could.}

30) Joseph Grünewald of York--Device Resubmission

Sable, two chevronels braced and on a chief Or a compass star gules.

The client's name was registered in 10/92. His previous submission, Sable, three chevronels braced and on a chief Or a compass star gules, was returned for a mundane conflict in 6/92.

31) Karl Königsberg--New Name

Karl is dated to the Middle Ages in the English Bahlow, 286. Königsberg is dated to 1430 in Brechenmacher, II:89, in the spelling Königsßpergk. To our disappointment, the client has opted for the standard spelling.

According to the form, the client will accept major changes, but not minor ones. This could be a problem, since the sources I could find suggest that the correct form of this name would be either Karl von Königsberg or Karl Königsberger. However, my sources for German bynames are rather limited. If this form cannot be registered, I suggest that we change his name to Dragoslav Vladimirov. {That's what passes for humor in a heraldry letter!}

32) Katherine d'Amiens--Name and Device Resubmission

Purpure, a unicorn rampant contourny and a on a chief double-arched argent a thistle sable.

The client's previous submission (Katherine de Lindsay) was returned by Laurel on 12/98 for conflict with Kathryn of Lindsey. The client's previous device (Per pale dovetailed sable and purpure, a unicorn contourny guardant and a thistle argent) was returned for using a complex line of division between two colors and for redrawing of the unicorn.

Katherine is found in Withycombe, 186. The spelling d'Ameins for the byname appears to be a typo. Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, 2, dates the castle of Amiens to 1223. Amiens is an important French city, and the spelling d'Amiens appears on the client's device submissions form. The client wants her name to be authentic for 13th-14th century France.

33) Katherine Mercer--New Name and Device

Azure, two chevronels argent between three mullets Or.

Katherine is found in Withycombe, 186. Mercer is dated to 1379 in Bardsley, 527. The client wants a name that is authentic for 15th or 16th century England.

The device was blazoned Azure, on a chevron argent between three mullets Or, a chevronel azure. The drawing of the design is not too clear, but we can't imagine any version of this design which would not be blazoned as above.

34) Keina ferch Siôn--New Name

Keina is dated to 1202 in Reaney & Wilson, 80. Siôn is called a "standard" from the "medieval period" in Morgan & Morgan, 136.

35) Leoba von Mainz--New Name and Device

Per bend sinister Or and vert, two grape leaves issuant from the line of division counterchanged.

Leoba and Mainz are both dated to the 8th century from Attwater, Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 213. S. Leoba was an English woman who became a missionary in the vicinity of Mainz. She is associated with the area around Mainz, the name Leoba von Mainz is not presumptuous since she spent most of her life in the monastery of Bischofsheim, which was several miles from Mainz itself. There is no indication whatsoever that she was ever considered to be "of Mainz." (An English translation of the 9th-century life of S. Leoba is included in Noble & Head, Soldiers of Christ.)

Someone at Pennsic got excited about this motif!

{36) Lisete de l'abbe St. Trondé--New Name and Device

Per pale sable and azure, two wolves' heads erased respectant ululant argent and Or within a bordure per pale argent and Or.

Although this name is listed as a Pennsic submission, there is no Pennsic worksheet for the name or the device.

No documentation at all is provided for the given name. The byname is documented with a note that references Pirenne, Des Origines Au Commencement du XIV Siecle, which is apparently one book in a multi-volume set called L'Histoire de Belgique. According to the note, this book mentions that the abbey of Saint-Trond (sic) was already well-known in the 7th century. At the top of the page she uses the spelling St. Trônde, so it's difficult to know which is correct.

We can document Lisette to 1528 from Scott, "Late Period Feminine Names from the South of France," ( http://www.panix.com/~mittle/names/talan/latefrenchfem). The word abbé in French means "abbot," not "abbey," and so we would have to modify the byname to de l'abbaye Saint-Trond. This might be conceivable, but it certainly isn't appropriate for the 7th century. Because of the unclear documentation and the fact that the client's name is not appropriate for her desired period, we will pend this name while we contact her.

The client's device is registerable, although we wouldn't recommend it. We modified the blazon to reflect the fact that two wolves' heads argent and Or are not the same tincture as a bordure per pale argent and Or. The first describes two charges with different tinctures; the second describes a single charge that is parti-colored.}

37) Lucina la frepière--Ne Name and Device

Azure, three acorns conjoined in pall and a chief rayonny argent.

Lucina is dated to the 13th century in Withycombe, s.n. Lucia. The masculine byname le frepier is dated to 1292 in Colm Dubh, "Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris." The lady has modified it to la frepière, which would be the standard feminine form in modern French.

38) Lucina la frepière--New Name and Device

(Fieldless) Three acorns conjoined in pall argent.

39) Lupo del Luna--Name Resubmission and New Device

Gyronny vert and Or, in pale a plate and a wolf's head caboshed argent.

The client's name documentation is difficult to read, but it's fairly straightforward. He documents Lupo from De Felice, Nomi, 242. He provides no documentation for Luna.

We were unable to provide any documentation for Luna, but it has been registered three times in the last 3 years without any comment in the LoAR. While I realize that this is not documentation, I am very reluctant to return a name that can probably be registered. Therefore, I am sending the name on for further consideration.

40) Malachie Rembert--New Name {and Device

Per pale argent and azure, on a pile counterchanged a cross couped fitchy sable.}

Submitted as Malachy Rembert. The client requested that the spelling be changed to reflect the modern French spelling of the name and the spelling of the name in the Biblia Pauperum. The name is intended to refer to the Old Testament prophet, not Irish saint. Rembert is the client's mundane surname and is also found in Dauzat, 507.

{The client chose to withdraw his device submission.}

41) Maximillian von Aurich--Name and Device Resubmission

Sable, on a chevron argent three vols gules.

The client's previous name submission, Aurich Greim, was returned by Laurel in 7/99 for lack of a given name. His previous device submission, identical to this one, was returned at the same time for conflict with Rafaella d'Allemtejo. Senhora Rafaella has provided permission to conflict, which is enclosed.

Maximillian is in the English Bahlow, s.n. Max. Aurich is a header in ibid. The client cares most about sound and would like his name to be authentic for an unspecified culture.

{These arms do not conflict with Alfred of Greyvale, Sable, on a chevron argent between a sword fesswise and a triple towered castle Or, three flames gules. A commenter suggested that the visual similarity between the flames and the eagles was too close to count for a CD.

According to RfS X.4.e, "types of charges considered to be separate in period…will be considered different." Parker, 256, dates heraldic flames to 1550. The eagle is one of the most common medieval charges. Unless there is evidence that flames and eagles were interchangeable in period, there is a different in type between the two--and thus the change from eagles to flames in this device does count for a second CD.}

42) Michael Colquhoun--New Name and Device

Sable, a winged sword inverted, wings elevated, argent.

Michael is found as a header in Withycombe. Colquhoun is found as a header in Black.

The device may conflict with Conrad MacAllyn, Gules, a sword inverted between a pair of wings inverted argent, depending on the appearance of Conrad's device.

43) Middle Kingdom, Consort of--Device Change

Argent, a pale gules, overall a dragon passant vert, in chief an ancient crown Or within a chaplet of roses argent, barbed and seeded proper.

The registration date of the client's name is unknown. If these arms are registered, the previous arms, Argent, a pale gules, overall a dragon passant vert, in chief an ancient crown Or within a chaplet of roses proper, should be changed to a badge.

For some years the Consort of the Middle Kingdom has been using the above arms, and this blazon is intended by the description in Midrealm Law: "The Royal Arms of the Middle Kingdom shall be incorporated herein…. CONSORT: Argent, a pale gules, overall a dragon passant vert, below an ancient crown or, surrounded by a wreath of roses argent, barbed and seeded proper." This "change" of device is simply a matter of ensuring that the device listed in the O&A is an accurate reflection of the arms used by Her Majesty.

44) Morgan de Ath--New Name

Morgan is dated to 1159 (in the Latinized form Morganus) in Reaney & Wilson, 314. The Latinized de Athia is dated to 1208 in ibid., 129. {As some commenters noted, Reaney and Wilson say that most examples of D'Eath and de Ath are modern forms used by people who wanted to hide their original surname, Death. However, they also note that there is a town called Ath in Belgium, and that this did give rise to some surnames.}

45) Olaf Bygolly--New Name and Device

Per bend sinister sable and Or, a shamrock counterchanged.

The client documents Ólafr from Geirr-Bassi, 13. He proposes Bygolly as a constructed English oath-name. The client has cited Bygot (1249) from Reaney & Wilson, 43. Bygot derives from the oath "by God!" and is only one of many examples of this type of name in Middle English. The client describes Golly is an "unattested spelling variant" of Golie, which is described as a form of Goliath in ibid., 207. They suggest that "by Goliath!" could have been an oath, since the use of "by God!" shows that Biblical figures were used in oaths.

I perceive some flaws in this line of argument. First, it is not entirely clear that Golly can be a spelling variant of Golie. Based on my (admittedly limited) knowledge of Middle English and the Middle English treatment of Latin names, I would expect Golie to be a three-syllable word--the OED notes that the Biblical giant was often called Goliah. On this I could easily be mistaken. However, the claim that the oath "by God" shows that oaths could be taken on any random Biblical personage makes very little sense. The Bible ascribes special status to God and to God's name, so the uses of God's name should not be generalized to other names. I would want to see some evidence that oaths were sworn on human Biblical characters. Incidentally, the OED dates golly to 1775 as a development of the earlier goles, which first appeared in writing in 1735.

I would normally return this submission, but I am sending it on for two reasons. First, it was examined by two respected members of the Atlantian College of Heralds (one a Master of the Pelican and a former Triton). Second, I was not able In deference to their opinion that Olaf Bygolly is a reasonable English name, I am sending this to the College of Arms for commentary.

46) Orionna Azzurro--New Name

The client was unable to document the spelling Orionna, but was able to find the standard Orianna in De Felice, Nomi, 289. Azzurro is a header in De Felice, Cognomi. The client will not accept major changes, but will accept the spelling Orianna if her variant is not acceptable.

{47) Oweyn ap Tegwaret ab Urien--Device Resubmission

Azure, three wyverns argent.

The client's name was registered in 12/97. His previous submission, Azure, on a pale argent a compass star elongated to base sable surmounted in base by a wyvern in annulo gules, a chief argent, was returned by Rouge Scarpe in 12/97. Unfortunately, this device conflicts with Karina of the Far West, Azure, a wivern statant argent. There is only 1 CD for the number of wyverns.

However, all hope is not lost. Karina of the Far West is a former Laurel Queen of Arms and so she'll be relatively easy to find. We would be happy to help this lord see about getting permission to conflict.}

48) Phillip MacGregor--New Name and Device

Per bend sinister argent and azure, a sheaf of three wheat stalks and an escallop counterchanged.

Phillip is described as "common…in the Middle Ages" by Withycombe, 245. MacGregor is dated to before 1603 in Black, 505.

49) Rachel Lamorran--New Device

Vert, a swan naiant, in chief three fleurs-de-lys argent.

The client's name was registered in 1/96.

50) Renaud de Launay--New Name and Device

Lozengy Or and vert, a patriarchal cross flory gules.

Renaud is dated to 1292 in the census of Paris. Dauzat & Rostaing, 20, give Launay as a variant of Annay. The client cares most about language and culture and would like his name to be authentic for an unspecified culture.

51) Rickard of Gwyntarian--New Name {and Device

Gyronny azure and argent, a griffin sergeant Or.}

Rickard is dated to 1066 in Reaney & Wilson, 377. Gwyntarian is an SCA branch whose name was registered in 3/83.

{Unfortunately, this device conflicts with Degary Golafre of Pembroke, Quarterly sable and gules, a griffin segreant coward bearing in her dexter talon a Celtic cross and in her sinister talon a sword inverted Or. There is 1 CD for the change in field, but nothing for the maintained charges or the position of the tail. However, we would be happy to help the client try to get permission to conflict.}

52) Roana of Bridgeford--New Device

Sable, a pale Or, a bridge and in chief three leaves counterchanged.

The client's name was registered in 5/98.

{53) Robert de Hwyl--Name and Device Resubmission

Argent, a stag trippant sable, a chief embattled vert.

The client's previous name submission, Robert da Hwyll, was returned by Rouge Scarpe in 3/99 for multiple grammatical problems. The client has retained the sound of the name but has come up with an entirely new (and much more plausible) meaning for it. This submission was pended in 9/99 because the submission included no documentation. I attempted to find documentation for a Welsh region called Hwyl, with no success. Since we haven't heard back from the client, I'm going to have to return the name.}

54) Roderick McCracken--New Name

Roderick is a header in Withycombe, who says that it is "not infrequent in Scotland." The form McCracken is not documented, but Black, s.n. MacCrackan, includes the forms McCrekan (1564), MacCrackane (1540), and McKrachin (1603). Each of these three forms supports one of the spellings used in the submitted name, and we have no doubt that it is a reasonable period form.

{55) Roewynne Langley--Badge Resubmission

Argent, a chevron inverted gules, overall an arrow inverted, a bordure dovetailed sable.

The client's name was registered in 5/88. The badge has been returned on several occasions, most recently by Laurel in 3/94 and again in 8/97, both times for redrawing. It was pended on the 7/99 Rouge Scarpe letter for more redrawing.

After a consultation, the client decided to withdraw this submission and resubmit an earlier version that was returned for a mundane conflict.}

56) Rosalind von Rheinpfalz--New Name

Submitted as Rosalind von Rheinpfaltz. The client documents Rosalind from Withycombe, 257, who says that the Goths introduced it to Spain. Roslind appears in Morlet, I;139, who includes the Latinized forms Roslindis and Roslinda. We were not able to document a shift from Roslind to Rosalind in German. However, since the client accepts minor changes, the form Roslind could be registered if Rosalind cannot be supported.

The Rheinpfalz is the modern German name for the region of Germany known as the Palatinate in English. The modern name is well-known, although the client did not provide documentation of a period form for it.

57) Sorcha Brecc ingen Donnchada--New Name and Device

Azure, three escallops inverted between two bendlets argent.

Sorcha appears in Ó Corrain & Maguire, 167, who say that it is "a relatively common name in medieval Ireland." Brecc is found in Jones, "Early Irish Feminine Names from the Index to O'Brien's Corpus Genealogicum Hiberniae," where it is identified as a descriptive byname meaning "freckled." The patronymic ingen Donnchada is derived from the Irish man's name Donnchad. Donnchad and the genitive form Donnchada appear in Jones, "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland."

We weren't sure whether the escallops or the bendlets should be treated as the primary charge in the blazon.

58) Stefan der Polle--New Name and Device

Per chevron embattled gules and argent, two swans naiant and a boar's head erased counterchanged.

The client wants his name to mean "Stefan the guy from Poland." Stefan is dated to 1345 in the English Bahlow, s.n. "Steffan." The byname der Polle is dated to 1364 in ibid., s.n. "Poll."

59) Sunnifa Gunnarsdottir--New Name

Sunnifa appears in Geirr Bassi, 15. Gunnarr is in ibid., 10. The rules for forming Gunnarsdottir appear in ibid., 17. The client will not permit changes to the name.

60) Ulrich von Zähringen--New Name

Ulrich is a header in the English Bahlow. Zähringen is a header spelling in Brechenmacher, II:844. The client will not permit changes.

61) Vivienne de la Chartreuse--Name and Device Resubmission

Azure, a unicorn rampant argent and a chief lozengy purpure and argent.

The client's original name submission, Vivienne du Lac, was returned by Laurel in 2/99 for conflict with the Lady of the Lake from Arthurian legend. {Her original device submission, Per bend purpure and azure semy-de-lys Or, in sinister chief a unicorn rampant argent, was returned by Rouge Scarpe in 4/99 for use of azure semy-de-lys, which is prohibited in SCA armory because of its association with French royalty.}

Vivienne is in Dauzat, 598; it is also described as a French name in Withycombe, 291. The placename la Chartreuse is dated to the 14th century in Franche-Comté Auvergne Lyonnais, Alpes, 218; the monastery La Grande Chartruese is dated to 1084 in "Chartruese Trivia" (http://www.chartreuse.fr/pa_trivia_uk.htm). The client will not permit major changes and cares most about meaning and language; she would like a period French name.

62) Ysabel Natalia Osorio de León -- Device Resubmssion

Per chevron purpure and vert, two lions combattant Or and a chalice argent.

The client's name was registered in 1/99. The client's previous submission was returned by Laurel for redrawing in 1/99 because the per chevron division was too low. {The client redrew the device and it appeared on the 3/99 IloI--this redrawing also had problems, but the item was listed as an an acceptance on my 5/99 letter and so she was not notified of its return. Because of the delay, I have put her new redrawing directly on the LoAR.}

63) Yseult the Gentle--New Name and Device

Vert semy of pears slipped and leaved, on a chief Or three pimpernels gules.

Yseult is constructed from a variety of spellings in Scott, "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames." These include Iseuda, 1214; Isota, 1327; Ysolt, 1201; and Ysout, 1200. Reaney & Wilson, s.n. "Gentle," date le Gentil to 1202 and (le) Gentil to 1242.

Done by my hand on the xxviii day of November, anno societatis xxxv, being the first Sunday of Advent.

Alan Fairfax, Rouge Scarpe

Alan Terlep
92 Ridgemont
Pontiac, MI 48340


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