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The Origin of Chinese New Year

The Chinese New Year is now popularly known as the Spring Festival because it starts from the Beginning of  Spring (the first of the twenty-four terms in coordination with the  changes of Nature). Its origin is too old to be traced. Several  explanations are hanging around. All agree, however, that the word Nian, which in modern Chinese solely means "year", was originally the name of a monster beast that started to prey on people the night before the  beginning of a new year (Do not lose track here: we are talking about  the new year in terms of the Chinese calendar).

One legend goes that the beast Nian  had a very big mouth that would swallow a great many people with one  bite. People were very scared. One day, an old man came to their rescue, offering to subdue Nian. To Nian he said, "I hear say that you are very capable, but can you swallow the other beasts of prey on earth instead  of people who are by no means of your worthy opponents?" So, swallow it  did many of the beasts of prey on earth that also harassed people and  their domestic animals from time to time.

After that, the old man disappeared  riding the beast Nian. He turned out to be an immortal god. Now that  Nian is gone and other beasts of prey are also scared into forests,  people begin to enjoy their peaceful life. Before the old man left, he  had told people to put up red paper decorations on their windows and  doors at each year's end to scare away Nian in case it sneaked back  again, because red is the color the beast feared the most.

From then on, the tradition of  observing the conquest of Nian is carried on from generation to  generation. The term "Guo Nian", which may mean "Survive the Nian"  becomes today "Celebrate the (New) Year" as the word "guo" in Chinese  having both the meaning of "Passover" and "observe". The custom of  putting up red paper and firing firecrackers to scare away Nian should  it have a chance to run loose is still around. However, people today  have long forgotten why they are doing all this, except that they feel  the color and the sound add to the excitement of the celebration.

Traditions of Chinese New Year

Even though the climax of the Chinese New Year, Nian, lasts only two or three days including the New Year's  Eve, the New Year season extends from the mid-twelfth month of the  previous year to the middle of the first month of the new year. A month  from the New Year, it is a good time for business. People will pour out  their money to buy presents, decoration material, food and clothing.  Transportation department, railroad in particular, is nervously waiting  for the onslaught of swarms of travelers who take their days off around the New Year to rush back home for a family reunion from all parts of  the country.

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