New year

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January 1st...

It's Another New Year...
...but for what reason?

"Happy New Year!" That greeting will  be said and heard for at least the first couple of weeks as a new year  gets under way. But the day celebrated as New Year's Day in modern  America was not always January 1.

The celebration of the new year is  the oldest of all holidays. It was first observed in ancient Babylon  about 4000 years ago. In the years around 2000 BC, Babylonians  celebrated the beginning of a new year on what is now March 23, although they themselves had no written calendar.

Late March actually is a logical  choice for the beginning of a new year. It is the time of year that  spring begins and new crops are planted. January 1, on the other hand,  has no astronomical nor agricultural significance. It is purely  arbitrary. The Babylonian new year celebration lasted for eleven days.  Each day had its own particular mode of celebration, but it is safe to  say that modern New Year's Eve festivities pale in comparison.

The Romans continued to observe the  new year on March 25, but their calendar was continually tampered with  by various emperors so that the calendar soon became out of  synchronization with the sun.

In order to set the calendar right,  the Roman senate, in 153 BC, declared January 1 to be the beginning of  the new year. But tampering continued until Julius Caesar, in 46 BC,  established what was come to be known as the Julian Calendar. It again  established January 1 as the new year. But in order to synchronize the  calendar with the sun, Caesar had to let the previous year drag on for  445 days.

Although in the first centuries AD  the Romans continued celebrating the new year, the early Catholic Church condemned the festivities as paganism. But as Christianity became more  widespread, the early church began having its own religious observances  concurrently with many of the pagan celebrations, and New Year's Day was no different. New Years is still observed as the Feast of Christ's  Circumcision by some denominations.

During the Middle Ages, the Church  remained opposed to celebrating New Years. January 1 has been celebrated as a holiday by Western nations for only about the past 400 years.

Other traditions of the season  include the making of New Year's resolutions. That tradition also dates  back to the early Babylonians. Popular modern resolutions might include  the promise to lose weight or quit smoking. The early Babylonian's most  popular resolution was to return borrowed farm equipment.

The Tournament of Roses Parade dates  back to 1886. In that year, members of the Valley Hunt Club decorated  their carriages with flowers. It celebrated the ripening of the orange  crop in California.
Although the Rose Bowl football game was first  played as a part of the Tournament of Roses in 1902, it was replaced by  Roman chariot races the following year. In 1916, the football game  returned as the sports centerpiece of the festival.

The tradition of using a baby to  signify the new year was begun in Greece around 600 BC. It was their  tradition at that time to celebrate their god of wine, Dionysus, by  parading a baby in a basket, representing the annual rebirth of that god as the spirit of fertility. Early Egyptians also used a baby as a  symbol of rebirth.

Although the early Christians  denounced the practice as pagan, the popularity of the baby as a symbol  of rebirth forced the Church to reevaluate its position. The Church  finally allowed its members to celebrate the new year with a baby, which was to symbolize the birth of the baby Jesus.

The use of an image of a baby with a  New Years banner as a symbolic representation of the new year was  brought to early America by the Germans. They had used the effigy since  the fourteenth century.

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