Outline of menu
Note from the cook – this is the final menu for 12th night, all dishes were selected from the menus from Bartolomeo Scappi for the month of January.
Translations and redactions are given below. I try to arrange menus such that common allergens (nuts, dairy, gluten) are not present in all dishes, thus you should be able to enjoy feast if you have allergies with one of these. Please make sure that you check the menu before buying feast if you have significant allergy concerns.
Should you have more extensive food concerns or dietary issues it is best to contact me as soon as possible. I will be able to advise you which foods you should avoid and may be able to make arrangements for an alternative dish, should budgetary and staff concerns allow.
Should you wish to help in the kitchen or with feast service please contact me.
Helewyse de Birkestad, Maestra di Cucina.
helewyse at yahoo dot com
Primo servizio di Credenza First service from the Sideboard
Pane a beneplacito A variety of breads based on period descriptions and recipes.
Mostardo amabile Sweet mustard – a fruity mustard
Pezzi di marzipan Pieces of marzipan modeled by the youth and others
Uve fresche Fresh grapes
Fettuccine di burro Butter piped onto plates and sprinkled with sugar
Insalata di verdura cotte e crudo Salad of greens, cooked and raw items
Limone tagliate e servito con zuccaro e acqua rosa thinly sliced lemons dressed with sugar and rosewater
Prosciutto cotto in vino e poi sfillato, servito con uva passa, zuccaro e succo di melagranata Ham cooked in wine, then shredded served with currants, sugar and sour orange juice on top
Primo servizio di Cucina First service from the kitchen
Vaccina salpresa alessata, servito con petrosemolo Salted pressed beef, boiled served with parsley
Pasticci di piccioni domestici con fette di gola di porco dentro Pastry of domestic pigeons, with slices of pork jowl bacon inside. (chicken thighs substituting for pigeons)
Salza Bianca fatta d’amandole Garlic almond sauce
Spinaci soffritti, acconci con aceta rosata, uva passa & zuccaro Fried spinach, dressed with rose scented vinegar, currants and sugar
Vegetarian option – Torta d’herbe alla Lombardo Lombard style herb (& cheese) tart.
Riso alla Lombardo – Rice in the Lombard style, rice layered with cheese, sugar and cinnamon.
Secondo servizio di Credenza Second service from the sideboard
Frittelle alla Venetiana Fritters in the venetian style (essentially a choux paste) stuffed with:
Crema Francese – French custard, or crème patisserie
Formaggi di piu sorte – Italian cheeses of many kinds – a small amount of good Italian cheese
Pere crudi Sliced pears – again a small amount, served with the cheese
A finire To finish
Finnocchio dolce Fennel seeds
Stecchi profumicati Scented toothpicks
Condite & confettioni di piu sorte Candies and confits as one wishes (quince paste, candied fennel, candied orange peel)
Translations and redactions.
All recipes are taken from Opera by Scappi unless otherwise noted. (Scappi, 1570). All translations have been done by the cook. If you wish to read the original Italian there are several copies of Scappi available on google books.
Some modifications to recipes have been made to accommodate modern tastes and the financial limitations of an SCA feast, these are noted underneath each recipe. Where appropriate amounts of ingredients are given, some ingredients however are indicated as “to taste” where appropriate.
First service from the kitchen
Variety of breads –
From Romoli Domenico (Romoli, 1593).
Of the bread maker
This office, or room of the baker will not be boring whether it is secrete or overt, despite the few chores. But well I say, that when the bread maker was not a store keeper, they keep order of a good cupboardio with his keys, & in it with your order is preserved, not just ordinary bread of the master, but at all times many appetizing little things such as: flat cakes with elderflower, melted butter, and sugar; breads with: salt, pepper, olives, figs, raisins, nuts, saffron, fennel, pepper; round cakes (ciambelle); biscotti; bracciatelli with anise seed; barley flour biscuits; round cakes with eggs; small sugar cakes; & berlingozzi. And every day these things accompany the service of the bread according to the month & year. I remind you, that even though these things seem of little moment, nevertheless many desire them.
Basic bread recipe is as follows:
100g AP flour
60 g water
5 g salt
5 g yeast
Mix ingredients together until dough is soft and elastic. Allow to rise in a warm place until doubled in size (at least three hours).
Divide dough and knead in the following flavorings (one per each type of bread)
Chopped olives, coursely ground fennel seed, finely ground saffron mixed with a small amount of water, walnuts, currants, chopped figs, black pepper
Shape into loaves, proof for at least one hour. Bake at 450F until bottom sounds hollow when rapped.
For flat bread of butter and sugar, flatten the bread, dock with fingers (like a focaccia), brush with melted butter and sprinkle with sugar.
Sweet mustard for sauce
Sweet Mustard Scappi Cap CCLXXVI, folio 95, 2nd book.
Take a pound of sauce of grapes, and an other of quinces cooked in wine and sugar, four ounces of “appie” apples cooked in wine and sugar, three ounces of candied peel of eggplant, two ounces of candied lemon peel, and half an ounce of candied nutmeg, and paste all the candied together with the apples and quinces in a mortar. When everything is ground pass it through a sieve together with the grape sauce, add to the said material three ounces of cleaned mustard seed, mor or less depending on how strong you want it. And when it is passed (mixed) put in a little salt and sugar finely ground, half an ounce of cinnamon, and a quarter of cloves, and if you don’t want to make a paste of the candies then chop them minutely. If you don’t have sauce of grapes one can make it without, take more quinces and apples cooked in the above said manner.
To make sauce of black grapes Scappi Cap CCLXXIIII folio 95, 2nd book
Take black grapes, that are firm, those that are called “gropello”, that is “cesenese”, that have a red skin, break them and put to boil in a casserole on a low fire for an hour. After take the juice that they have made and strain through a sieve. And for every pound of juice take eight ounces of fine sugar and put it to reboil in a casserole, scum it well and to this add at the end a little salt and whole cinnamon and let it boil on a slow fire until it takes the cooking (the implication here is that the sauce reduces and becomes syrupy) and when it is cooked conserve it in a glass or glazed pottery vessel.
For the grape sauce:
1 lb red or black grapes
4 oz sugar
1 ” stick cinnamon
For the apples cooked in wine and sugar:
1/2 cup wine
1/2 cup water
1/3 cup sugar
For the quinces
1 lb quinces
For the mustard sauce:
1 oz candied lemon peel
1 small pinch ground nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 pinch cloves
1 oz mustard seed ground
Take the grapes, break the skins and place in a covered pot on a low heat for one hour. Strain the grapes through a sieve and then strain the resultant pulpy juice through a jelly bag or cheesecloth. This should yield 8 oz of grape juice. Add the sugar, return to the pan and bring to a boil. As it boils remove any scum that rises to the surface. Simmer for about 20 minutes until the sauce reaches a consistency that is tacky and thick and is before the jelly stage.
Peel and core the quince, chop roughly and place in a pan with a little water, simmer until tender. Remove the quince from the liquid, blend and press through a sieve to remove any chunks.
Core the apples, chop roughly and place in a pan with the wine and sugar, simmer until tender. Remove the apples from the liquid and press through a sieve or other strainer, to remove skin and mash apples.
Blend 12 oz grape sauce with 12 oz of quince and 4 oz apple paste in a blender with the lemon peel and remaining spices including the mustard. Blend until smooth. This is a sweet, tangy, fruity mustard, in every way friendly (which is the literal translation of amabile). Makes enough to fill a 16 oz canning jar, serves 30 for feast.
Pieces of marzipan
No individual recipe could be found in Scappi (Scappi, 1570) thus excerpted from a pie recipe:
To make small fried pies of marzipan and other varied fillings, Cap 234 5th book
Take one pound of ambrosia almonds peeled, four ounces of pine nut candy, a pound of sugar and grind everything together with three ounces of rose water. Of this stuffing make pies large or small with a sheet of pasta made as described in the previous chapter. Cut them with the spur (metal pastry wheel), or with the rowel of wood (wooden pastry wheel) and fry them in oil, and when they are fried serve them with sugar on top. In the same way one can make small fried pies of whatever stuffing is described in the previous tart and crust recipes.
12 oz of skinned almonds
12 oz sugar
3 oz rose water (may substitute plain water)
Place dry ingredients in a food processor and grind until smooth, add water or rose water until a firm, not sticky dough is made.
Fettuccine made with butter
No recipe in Scappi but a slightly post period source has one (Turco)
Little worms of butter
Take fresh butter and wash it with fresh water many times and the last time wash it with rose water and sugar.
Then have ready a barrel of tin or of wood hollowed in the form of a syringe, but make sure that the bottom plate has three or four holes in it. Then make the barrel almost full of butter and have a piece of wood that fits into the said barrel and one pushes it into the barrel and the butter will come out of the holes at the bottom and make little worms. The which one should allow to fall onto plates and then dust with fine sugar on top.
Sweet cream salted butter
Warm the butter to room temperature and place in a stand mixer with a paddle attachment. Beat the butter and incorporate a small amount of water (no more than 1/8th by weight) this lightens the butter and makes it softer.
Load the whipped butter into a piping bag with a decorative nozzle, pipe onto small serving plates, sprinkle with sugar, serve.
Please note – the rosewater was specifically excluded from this dish as to many modern dinners it is too much, thus to please the palates of the many the rose water has been omitted. To make it in a more period manner whip in rosewater to taste prior to piping.
Salad of greens and other things cooked and raw
Rather than a specific recipe the following seasonal vegetables are given as being eaten in salads, and their cooking method if any.
From Archidipno (Massonio, 1627)
Parsnip – roasted
Red beets – boiled or roasted
Turnip – roasted
Onions – boiled or roasted
Radish – boiled or raw (if sweet)
Fennel – parboiled in water (stems) raw (fronds)
Romaine lettuce – raw
Endive – raw dressed with oil, vinegar and mosto cotto.
Cabbage (green) – internal (white) leaves shredded dressed with grapes, mosto cotto, oil and vinegar.
From Castelvetro (Castelvetro, 1614) – Winter salads
Chicory leaves chopped with garlic
Roasted carrots and turnips
Will vary dependent upon availability and price, the composed salad will be laid on a bed of raw green leafy vegetables (endive, romaine, watercress or cabbage), roasted and cooked components may include: Fennel, parsnip, beets, onions, carrots, turnip.
Salad will be dressed with salt, pepper and an oil and vinegar dressing slightly sweetened with mosto cotto (reduced grape juice). Ratio of 3 parts oil to 1 part vinegar and ½ part mosto cotto.
Fresh grapes of many kinds
No recipe, menu description only (Scappi, 1570).
Ingredients – fresh grapes. Method – wash grapes and plate.
Citron lemons cut in slices served with sugar and rose water on top
No recipe, menu description from Scappi (Scappi, 1570) only: thinly sliced lemons dressed with sugar and rosewater
Ingredients – lemons, sugar, rosewater, Method – using a mandolin slice the lemons into thin (1/16th inch) slices. Arrange on a plate, dust with white granulated sugar, sprinkle lightly with rosewater.
Olives in plates – menu description (Scappi, 1570) only. good olives, a small amount
Ingredients – olives Method – plate and serve.
Ham cooked in wine, then shredded served with currants, sugar and sour orange juice on top–
No recipe, menu description only (Scappi, 1570).
Cinnamon and cloves (a few)
Sour orange juice (obtained from Mexican market)
Cook the ham in a mixture of 50/50 water and wine with the addition of several sticks of cinnamon and about 5 cloves. Follow directions for boiling ham given with the meat. Allow to cool completely then shred with two forks.
Arrange shredded ham on a plate, sprinkle zante currants and sour orange juice over the ham to taste.
First (and only) service from the kitchen
Meat Salted pressed beef, boiled served with parsley–
To lightly salt and boil every cut of the said animal, chapter 4, Scappi
I find that the shoulder and breast of the said animals are more appropriate than the others. When the cow or bull is dead and skinned without being skinned, one cuts it into the said layers in many pieces, and one puts it in slat in a ceramic vessel or wood, the which has been well washed, because if the salt is not cleaned, and if it is full of dirt it will have a bad smell, and when the pieces are places one on top of the others one covers the vessel with a wood cover, adding above a weight that holds everything well pressed until it has made the salt solution, and the summer when it has been curing for four days, and in the winter for eight, one pulls it out of the vessel, as much as you want to cook, rinse it in fresh water, and put it to cook in water without salt, and make sure above all that it is well skimmed. When it is cooked one can serve it hot or cold at every time with garlic sauce or mustard in plates. And if you want to make it in the same day that the animal is killed, take a piece of the shoulder or another part, and put it to boil in strong salted water until it is well cooked. And serve this in the same way that it is said above.
Pink salt (sodium nitrite)
Spice blend – coriander, black pepper, garlic powder, fennel
Method – modified from serious eats
Trim and clean the beef, removing connective tissue and most of the fat.
Prepare the dry rub which requires 100g kosher salt and 10g pink salt, 2 tablespoons cracked black pepper, 2 tablespoons coriander, 1 tablespoon garlic powder, 1 tablespoon crushed fennel per 5lb of meat.
Rub the dry cure over all surfaces of the meat. Place in a vacuum bag or ziplock bag so that salt remains in close contact with meat surface. Refrigerate for 7 days turning the bag daily.
Cook the beef in a slow cooker set to no more than 190F for at least 8-10 hrs. Cool slightly and slice.
Serious eats – http://www.seriouseats.com/recipes/2011/03/homemade-corned-beef-brisket-with-potatoes-cabbage-carrots-recipe.html
Pastry of domestic pigeons, with slices of pork jowl bacon inside.
To make a pastry of domestic pigeon, turkey and other birds, Chapter 36, 5th book.
Take the pigeon, that is sufficiently tender (aged) and pluck it dry, cut of the wings, but leave the neck with it’s plumage. Clean out the insides and with a cloth, without washing, one cleans out all the blood that is inside. Then dust it with pepper, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg and salt and to keep it tender and juicy put inside a bit of salted pork jowl or lardo and several dried fronds of sweet fennel. Accommodate the legs, and let the pigeon firm (par cook) on the grill or in water, but it is better on the grill. Making sure that you don’t spoil the collar, and after it is firmed let it cool. Cut off the feet and put several cloves into the breast and thighs, then have ready a sheet or a pastry case made with coarse flour as indicated in chapter one. With slices of lardo below place in the birds as many as will fit and dust them with the above said spices. And one buts the birds breast down with more lardo on top of the spine and cover with pastry. Make it in such a way that the head stays outside of the pie and wrap it well in waxed paper. Put it to cook in the oven on low heat, and when it is cooked in the winter it will keep for 10 days, and in the summer for four. In this way one can prepare turkey, having made sure to cut off the point of the breast, because otherwise you cannot fit it in the pastry, these two birds one can stuff with any of the compositions which are given in chapter 115 for stuffing birds. In this way one can also make large mountain pheasants, those with the black plumage and red eyes, and also geese and wood ducks.
Excerpt from Chapter 1 – coarse pastry
Take flour of wheat (this may possibly be spelt i.e. grano grosso) sifted through a clear hair sieve, in the way that in this sieve the bran is left behind. Paste this with cold water without salt, because if you paste it with warm/hot water and with salt it will rise and easily cracks and it isn’t as nice. Less in the summer but in the winter, when there is a big chill it is enough that the water has taken the cold, because it is as bad to be too cold as it is to be too warm. When it is well pasted let it rest on top of a table for the space of half an hour. Knead it with the fist or kneading instrument, until the pastry has become soft and firm.
Notes – skinless chicken thighs were substituted for partridge in this recipe to reduce cost and ease portion control. The pastry is not designed to be edible it is in essence a baking dish that contains the aromas and flavors and moisture of the cooking meat.
Whole wheat flour
Jowl bacon or belly bacon (dependent on price and availability) sliced thinly.
Spice blend containing 2 parts black pepper, 2 parts cinnamon, 1 part nutmeg, ½ part cloves
Fresh fennel fronds
Sift the whole wheat flour to remove the coarse bran. Add cold water sufficient to make a malleable dough (about 50-60% liquid by weight, this means 50-60g water per 100g flour). Allow dough to rest for at least 40 minutes.
Line a pie plate or 9”square dish with a layer of the rolled out whole wheat dough. Lay down several fennel fronds, arrange skinless chicken thighs in the dish. Sprinkle with the spice blend to taste, cover thighs with slices of bacon. Cover the pie with another layer of pastry. Seal the edges. Bake at 350 F for about 45-60 minutes or until the internal temperature of the chicken is at minimum 180F.
Serve warm, remove lid and eat the chicken, the pastry will be dry and flavorless, don’t eat it.
Garlic almond sauce for flavor
To make a garlic sauce with fresh walnuts and almonds Chapter 257, second book
Take six ounces of fresh walnuts, and four of fresh ambrosine almonds, and six parboiled garlic cloves, or one and a half raw, and grind in the mortar with four ounces of bread crumbs that have been soaked in meat broth or fish broth that isn’t too salted. And when they are ground add a quarter (of an ounce) of ground ginger. This sauce should be well ground but should not be strained only tempered with the said broths. If the walnuts are not fresh then soak them in cold water until they soften and you can peel them. In the same sauce one can also grind a little bit of turnip or kohl rabi cooked in meat broth if it is a fat day.
Garlic almond sauce
Parboiled garlic (6 cloves)
10 oz peeled almonds
4 oz bread crumbs soaked in lightly salted water, and squeezed out
Splash of olive oil
¼ oz ginger powder (or less to taste)
Place all ingredients except for the ginger in a food processor, blend until the mixture is a smooth paste, add additional water if necessary to smooth it out. Add salt and ginger to taste.
Note – to make this dish vegetarian friendly the meat broth has been omitted, Scappi himself notes that salted water and oil may be substituted for broth in Lenten days.
Fried spinach, dressed with rose scented vinegar, currants and sugar
To fry spinach and cook it in other ways. Chapter 244, third book.
Take tender spinach, wash it and drain it, have a frying pan with hot oil and put inside the said spinach with the smallest amount of salt, and turn it with the spoon and beat it. And when it is beaten and cooked add currants, pepper, cinnamon and sour orange juice or clear verjuice or a little mosto cotto and let it raise to the boil again and serve everything together hot. If you want it in the Florentine style, put it in the pan washed without oil and let it fry and beat it with the spoon and drain off the water and add oil, salt, pepper vinegar, mosto cotto and currants and put everything in a pan and let it finish cooking very slowly with the same sauce, and when it is cooked serve it warm or cold as you please with its sauce on top. If you want it in a third way when the spinach is large (and tough) let it parboil in boiling water and when it is par cooked take it out and press out the water and make it into large balls, the which balls one can keep from one day to the next. And when you want to serve it, one fries it with small onions chopped in oil, adding salt, pepper, currants and one serves it hot with verjuice or sour orange juice on top and mosto cotto. One also may cook it in any way that one cooks the other herbs in broth.
Spinach sautéed with vinegar and mosto cotto
Red wine vinegar
Wash spinach and drain but do not dry. Heat a pan with a tablespoon of olive oil in it. Add the spinach and sautee, turning frequently, add a teaspoon of vinegar, a sprinkling of sugar and a teaspoon of currants. Send to the table hot. This dish does not hold well and must be prepared as it is being served.
Vegetarian option – Herb and cheese tart.
To make Lombard style herb tart, chapter 92, 5th book
Cut swiss chard finely with a knife, and wash it in plenty of water, let it drain by itself in a colander because if you press it the juice will exit and that is it’s goodness. Than take a pound of Parmigiano or of fat Riviera cheese grated, a pound of fresh sheep ricotta or cow, an ounce between pepper and cinnamon, a quarter (of an ounce) between clove and nutmeg, four ounces of fresh butter, six eggs and make the mixture of these things. Have ready a tart pan greased with butter with a sheet of pasta made of fine flour, rose water, sugar, butter, egg yolks and tepid water, and put the stuffing in the tart pan and cover with another sheet of pastry that is wrinkled, and let it cook in the oven or under a “testo” and serve hot. And if you want to add sugar in the stuffing or on top it is up to you.
Lombard style herb tart
For pastry: 8 oz All-purpose flour, 4 oz butter, 1/2 teaspoon salt, ice water to mix
12 oz ricotta cheese
4 oz frozen chopped spinach, thawed and drained
spice blend consisting of nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves and pepper
Pre-heat the oven to 400 F. Make the pastry by rubbing the butter into the flour, add salt and blend to a dough with the ice water. Allow the dough to rest in the fridge for at least half an hour before pro-ceeding. Roll out the dough and use it to line a pie plate, bake blind in the oven for 15-20 minutes, or until the crust has set but is not colored. Reduce the heat to 360.
Meanwhile make the filling. Squeeze the spinach to remove all the water, blend the spinach with the ricotta and eggs, add salt, and spices to taste. I prefer the following predominance of flavors, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon and cloves. Pour the filling into the prepared crust and bake for about 45 minutes or until the filling has set. Remove from the oven and chill before serving.
Rice in the Lombard style, rice layered with cheese, sugar and cinnamon.
To make a dish of rice in the Lombard style baked with chicken meat, yellow sausage and egg yolks, Chapter 146 Second book.
Take rise and wash it in the way described above, and cook it in broth in which one has cooked capons, geese and yellow sausage, and when it is cooked in such a way that it is still firm take a part of this rice and put it in a plate of earthernware, or silver or tin and sprinkle with cheese, sugar and cinnamon and put above this rice several pats of fresh butter and the meat of the breast of capon and of goose with yellow sausage cut in pieces and resprinkle with cheese, sugar and cinnamon. In this way make three layers and the last layer bathe with liquefied fresh butter and powder with the same mixture and put in the oven, that is not too warm, and leave it for half an hour until it takes a little color and spritz it with rose water and serve hot. One can also make the rise in another way, that is when it is cooked grease a plate with butter and put on it slices of fresh non salted provatura and sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and grated cheese and above this put the rice. And above the rice put raw egg yolks, depending on the amount of rice, and above these yolks put more slices of provatura sprinkled with sugar cheese and cinnamon and then cover with more rice. In this way one can make two or three layers and at the last a little butter on top and let it stay under hot ashes or in the oven as described above and serve hot.
Dish of rice in the Lombard Style
Long grain rice
Parcook the rice, as it is being roasted further the rice should be slightly al dente, it will steam cook the rest of the way in the oven as the cheese melts. For mass servings it is best to treat the rice like pasta and boil it in a large volume of water, strain the rice through a sieve when it reaches al dente.
Layer rice in a large buttered casserole with alternate layers of shredded cheese with a light sprinkling of both cinmaon and sugar. Top with melted butter and return to a 250 F oven for 15-20 minutes or until melted and lightly browned on top.
Second service from the sideboard
To make various sorts of fritters, and first to make Venetian fritters Chapter 136, page 370
Put to boil six libre of goats milk in a casserole well tinned, with six ounces of fresh butter, four ounces of sugar, four ounces of rose water, a little saffron and enough salt. When the boil begins to rise add into it two pounds of flour little by little. Mix continuously with a wooden spoon until it becomes stiff like bread dough. Take it from the casserole and put it into a stone mortare and pound it for a quarter of an hour. Then take it out and put it into a bowl of copper or of ceramic, mix it with a wooden spoon or with a hand until it chills. Then have twenty four fresh eggs and put them in one by one, mixing continuously with the wooden spoon or with the hand until the paste because liquid. After adding the eggs beat for a quarter of an hour until it makes blisters (bubbles?) and leave it to rest for a quarter of an hour in a warm place then beat again. Then have ready a frying pan with hot lard, and take the mixture and put it over a plate and with the mouth of a bottle well greased with cold lard or with a cane of white iron cut the fritters and put them into the lard and give them gentle heat, and several times move the pan making the fritters dance in the lard without touching (each other) and when the fritters begin to be cooked they will crack, because by nature they puff up and become like medlars. Many times one will see that they have taken enough color and they are light, take them out with a slotted spoon and serve them hot with fine sugar on top. With this paste one can make various works with the syringe (pastry bag) but it should be somewhat thicker than that used for fritters if one wants to make them better with the syringe. Let them bake for half an hour in an oven which is not too hot and serve them with fine sugar on top.
As originally written 6th of recipe
72fl oz goat milk 12 fl oz goat milk
6 oz butter 1 oz butter
4 fl oz rose water 2/3 fl oz rose water
4 oz sugar 2/3 oz sugar
24 oz white flour 4 oz flour
24 fresh eggs 4 eggs
Boil the saffron with the butter and goat milk, add the flour all in one go, beat it hard. When it has come together as a nice smooth ball of paste, transfer it to a stand mixer. Turn it on and let it mix for at least 15 minutes, this also helps cool it. Beat the eggs in separate bowl and add in small installment. For a fried batter add the full amount of eggs, for baking use 1 less per 4 oz flour. Allow eggs to incorporate fully before the next addition. Pipe or place spoonfuls of batter on a greased baking sheet and bake at 400F for 25-35 minutes, or until golden. Alternatively cut pipe them into hot lard and fry until golden.
To make pastries in various ways with French cream, chapter 45 book 5
The crema is a French word, it is made of flour, milk and eggs. Take a foglietta of fresh goat or cows milk and mix in four ounces of sugar and four ounces of fresh butter and a little rose water and enough salt; and put it to the fire in a casserole and when it begins to boil have ready an other half foglietta of milk with four ounces of flour and six beaten eggs and mix everything together with this flour and pour it into the casserole, mixing well until it thickens, then take it out and put it into a clear strainer and let it strain and put it back into a glazed pot or tinned copper pot with a little more sugar and rose water. If you want to add raw egg yolks that is up to you. Have ready a case of layered or non layered pastry you can fill it with this mixture and you can do all the works with it that one can do with blancmange. One can also fill Imperial cones and Royal pastry, having first cooked the cones in the oven and these cones should be filled more for their beauty than their flavor. When they are stuffed one gives them a warm in the oven and serves them hot or cold as you wish with sugar on top, also of this mixture one can stuff various arms cut by hand or other arms made in forms.
Foglietta –is about 450ml or about 1 pint.
French pastry cream.
1. 5 pints Whole milk
4 oz Sugar
4 oz Butter
Rosewater – omitted for feast, add to taste
Pinch of Salt
4 oz Flour
In a bowl whisk the flour and eggs with ½ pint of milk. Meanwhile heat the remaining milk with the sugar and butter. Once the milk has come to a boil slowly add to the egg and flour mixture, mixing continuously to prevent scalding the eggs. Return the mixture to the pan and heat gently whilst stirring continuously until the mixture thickens. Remove from the heat and strain to remove any lumps. Cover with plastic wrap (to prevent skin formation) and cool. Fill piping bag and use to stuff Ventian fritters above. Serve dusted with powdered sugar.
Italian cheeses in slices – a small amount of good Italian cheese
Menu description in Scappi only. Estimate 1-2 oz of total cheese per person, cacciocavalo, provolone, and asiago
Sliced pears –
Menu description only. ¼ – ½ pear per person.
Fennel seeds – fresh fennel seeds
Scented toothpicks – toothpicks soaked in rose water
Candies and confits as one wishes
candied fennel – purchased from Indian grocer
Candied citron peel (Turco)
Take the peel of citron and put in fresh water for eight days, changing the water twice a day. Then boil them in fresh water until they are half cooked and they have lost their bitterness and have become transparent, then refresh them with cold water and spread them out on a surface to dry.
After this put on top of them enough sugar, in the syrup stage, that they are covered, and it should be cold when one adds it. Let them stay in the syrup two or three days. Then one drains the syrup and cooks it to drive off the water that it has pulled from the peels, and return it to the same syrup stage. When it is cool pour it over the peels again and leave for another three or four days. Then boil the syrup and the peels very slowly together until all the absorbed water has left and the peels will have taken the sugar and they will be perfect and lustrous.
In place of sugar one can use honey, and hold to the same order, but honey can be put on top as it is without cooking first if it is the best honey, and when you cook it take care that only the water that has been extracted (from the peels) is leaving. One holds the same order for the rest as is said for sugar.
Take care that neither the honey nor the sugar should boil aggressively.
Lemon and orange peels
Soak peels in water for eight days. Boil until translucent, chill in fresh water and dry.
Boil together 2 cups of sugar and one cup of water until a temperature of 230 (thread stage), cool and pour over dried peels, leave in this sugar solution for three days. Strain syrup from peels, cook syrup to thread stage (230F), cool and cover peels for another four days. Put pan on heat and heat slowly until peels are tender and translucent and sugar has reached 230 F again. Remove from syrup and spread on waxed paper to cool.
Cotognata or Genovese paste (quince paste) – Del Turco.
Take one pound of powdered sifted white sugar, two pounds of strained quince paste and mix them together in a casserole above the fire. Cook them slowly until they are half cooked then continue to cook stirring continuously until it is ready.
When it is cooked one puts it into molds or on rounds of clay or over marble sprinkled with sugar or oiled with fresh almond oil. And one puts them in the sun until they are firm, and if there isn’t sun then put them in a cool oven until they are dry.
2 lbs quince chopped roughly
Roughly chop the quince, cover with water and cook until tender. Strain the quince and cooking liquid through a sieve to remove skin and seeds. Weigh the resultant paste, for every pound of paste add ½ lb of sugar. Cook slowly on the stove, as the mixture thickens you will need to stir more frequently, if you leave it alone at this point it will volcano and cover your cupboards, wall and ceiling with little specks of quince paste (TRUST ME!). When a spoon pulled across the bottom of the pan leaves a clear line it is most likely done. Test the paste for doneness by placing a teaspoon of paste on a cold plate, it should be set and jelly like, more like a fruit jelly than a preserve. Pour the cooked jelly onto a greased baking tray and allow to cool, slice and store in the fridge, or roll in additional sugar, spread out and leave in a low oven overnight to dry further.
Castelvetro, G. (1614). Brieve racconto di tutte le radici, di tutte l’erbe e di tutti i frutti che crudi o cotti in Italia si mangiano. London.
Massonio, S. (1627). Archidipno overo dell’insalata e dell’vso di essa. Venice: Marc’Antonio Brogiollo. Retrieved from http://alfama.sim.ucm.es/dioscorides/consulta_libro.asp?ref=B20397215&idioma=0
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Turco, G. d. (1602-1636 (reprint 1992)). Epulario e segreti vari. Trattati di cucina toscana nella Firenze Seicentesca. Bologna: Arnaldo Forni .